Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR - Hull 5/24/40

Document:
MEMORANDUM FOR
. THE SECRETARY OF STATE
To prepare reply.

F. D. R.

Enclosures fdr/tmb

Letter from Hon. Myron C. Taylor, Rome, 4/26/40 to the President, with attached Note Verbale, 4/26/40, handed to Mr. Taylor by the Cardinal Secretary of State, regarding the unsuccessful efforts that the Holy See has been making to send relief to Poland.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.Note of Enclosure for FDR . 2. Hull - FDR 6/18/40. 3. FDR - Taylor 6/18/40. 4. memo in re: US -Vatican relations. 5. Hull - Commission for Polish Relief 6/18/40. 6. Pope Pius XII - Taylor 4/16/40 ..



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR - Taylor 6/18/40

Document:
June 18,1940
My dear Myron:

Replying to your letter of April 26, 1940 enclosing a copy of a note verable of the same date regarding the unsuccessful efforts the Holy See is making to send relief to Poland, you will find enclosed a suggested form of not verable which you may see fit to use in reply to the note verable from the Vatican.

You will probably also explain the situation orally or elaborate upon the subject matter contained in this note, as your judgment may deem necessary.
Very sincerely yours,
FDR

Enclosure.


The Honorable Myron C. Taylor,
Personal Representaive of
the President,
Vatican City


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.Note of Enclosure for FDR . 2. Hull - FDR 6/18/40. 3. FDR - Hull 5/24/40 . 4. memo in re: US -Vatican relations. 5. Hull - Commission for Polish Relief 6/18/40. 6. Pope Pius XII - Taylor 4/16/40 ..



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Memo in re: US -Vatican relations.

Document:
The Persorrel Representative of the President of the United States to His Holiness, Pope Plus XII, presents his compliments to His Eminence the Cardinal Secretary of State and has the honor to advise that he has submitted to the President the note verbale N. 7515 of April 26, 1940 with reference to the unsuccessful efforts which the Holy See has been making to send relief to Poland and, at the request of the President, has the honor to submit the fol-lowing with reference thereto.

Both the President and the people of the United States are deeply sensitive of the great efforts which His Holiness, the Pope, has made, not only to preserve but also to induce peace on the earth; and, as well,the great services which have been rendered by His Holiness in alleviatig and seeking further to alleviate, the suffering that has been 'occasioned by war.

The Government of the United States is also deeply concerned and anxious that the maximum of relief should be extended to the civilian populations of war stricken Europe. There are a number of organizations, associations and private persons engaged in raising money for this purpose in the Unlted States. The Government has no connection with any of these private organizations except that provided by the Neutrality
Act, and the Government is not a participant in any of their respective activities. The governmnet has no control over their activities so long as they conform to the law.

The only agency for relief which is either official or quasi-official so
far as the goernment of the United States is concerned is the American Red Cross.

The government is, of course, concerned that there should be coordination between these various agencies, so that there will be no conflict which would be prejudicial to the main purpose of relieving the destitution and suffering due to war conditions. It is also clear that these activities should be coordinated so that there should be no conflict as between them in connection either with the time which each sets for the raising of monies by public subscription or with the disbursement of this aid in such a way as to produce the maximum relief.

It is beyond the power of the President to name the members of the commission for Polish Relief. The substance of the specific requests therefore has been transmitted to the Commission for Polish Relief, and doubtless that organization will communicate direct to the Holy See with reference thereto.

The personal Representative of the President has been further requested to express the hope that the Secretary of State to His Holiness, the Pope, will inform His Holiness of the deep sympathy which the President has for the humanitarian purposes upon which he has so effectively engaged.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.Note of Enclosure for FDR . 2. Hull - FDR 6/18/40. 3. FDR - Hull 5/24/40 . 4. FDR - Taylor 6/18/40. 5. Hull - Commission for Polish Relief 6/18/40. 6. Pope Pius XII - Taylor 4/16/40 ..



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Hull - Commission for Polish Relief 6/18/40

Document:
June 18, 1940
In reply refer to
SD


Commission for Polish Relief, Inc.,
420 Lexington Ave,
New York, New York.
Sirs:

Upon the direction of the President I have to advise you as follows.

Under date of April 26, 1940 the Secretary of State to His Holiness
addressed a communication to the Personal Representative of the President of the United States with reference to the fact that the Holy See had decided to avail itself of the good offices of the American Commission for Polish Relief as one of the agencies through which it will work in its effort to succor the people of Poland and that a considerable initial contribution had been made to the Commission and other sums on deposit on American banks could be turned over for this purpose.

The Holy See requested at that time that "the widest possible publicity be given both in America and in Poland, to the fact that the Holy See is contributing largely to the Commission's work of relief" and "that consideration might be given to the advantage which would derive in many ways from the presence in Poland among the Commission's representatives of two Catholic citizens of the United States."

A reply has been sent forward to the Secretary of State to His Holiness that the Government of the United States is deeply concerned and anxious that the maximum relief should be extended to the civilian populations of was stricken areas in Europe; however, it was pointed out that there were a large number of organizations in the United States engaged in raising money for this purpose, that the government had no connection with any of these private organizations except such as was provided by the Neutrality Act, that the government was not a participant in any of their respective activities and that therefore it was beyond the power of the President to name the members of
the Commission, as suggested. The Secretary of State to His Holiness was, however, advised that the substance of his specific request had been transmitted to the Commission for Polish Relief and that doubtless that organization would communicate
directly with the Holy See with reference thereto.

Very truly yours,
Cordell Hull


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.Note of Enclosure for FDR . 2. Hull - FDR 6/18/40. 3. FDR - Hull 5/24/40 . 4. FDR - Taylor 6/18/40. 5. Memo in re: US -Vatican relations. 6. Pope Pius XII - Taylor 4/16/40 ..



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Pope Pius XII - Taylor 4/16/40.

Document:
The Secretariate of State to His Holiness has the honor to address this communication to the Personal Representation of the President of the United States of America to His Holiness the Pope for the purpose of making known the efforts which have been made and are being made by the Holy See to afford
assistance to the stricken people of Poland.

In carrying out Their sacred mission of apostolic charity, the Sovereign Pontiffs have always been in the forefront of those who seek to alleviate the suffering which is the inevitable concomitant and consequent of war. Thus during the world war of 1914-1918 the then Sovereign Pontiff, Pope Benedict XV of venerated memory, marshalled the resources of the Holy See, in men and in treasure, for the relief of the civilian populations in wartorn countries and for the amelioration of the lot of military prisoners. It is well known also that this Pontifical work in favor of afflicted humanity was continued throughout the period of destitution which, notably in Germany, followed the cessation of hostilities.

The sad conditions ensuing upon the occupation of Poland in the autumn of last year made an instant appeal to the paternal compassion of the present Holy Father who immediately sought by every means in His power to extend, in addition to spiritual comfort,that material help which was so sorely needed by the people of that country. Beginning in October 1939, official representations were made to the Government of the Reich with a view to securing passage into Poland of the relief at the disposition of the Holy See. The replies of the German Govermnent to these and to repeated subsequent representations were dilatory and evasive. An endeavor was then made to send money to the distressed Poles in order that they might be in a position to help themselves, but the restrictions imposed and the unfavorable rate of exchange offered were such as to justify the fear that by this means only a small proportion of effective aid would ultimately reach its destination. When it finally became evident that it was not the purpose of the German Government to permit the Holy See, in its own name, to minister to the needs of these people in their tragic plight, there remained no recourse but to look elsewhere for means of arriving at the desired end.

Accordingly when information reached the Holy See that the German Government had agreed to allow the American "Commission for Polish Relief" to send supplies into Poland and to station representatives there for the purpose of supervising the distribution of these supplies to the civilian population, the Holy See saw in this permission a possible channel for communicating its own relief to the Poles. It is true that at the same time it was reported reliably from Berlin that the German authorities, while authorizing the representatives of the "Commission for Polish Relief" to remain at Warsaw to receive the supplies shipped from America, would not permit them to exercise effective supervision over distribution. Nevertheless, in spite of this discrepancy in the information in its possession, the Holy See, in view of the urgent necessity of getting immediate aid to a people in desperate straits, has decided to avail itself of the good offices of the American "Commission for Polish Relief" as one
of the agencies through which it will work in its efforts to succor the Poles. His Excellency the Apostolic Delegate at Washington, under instructions from this Secretariate of State, has already turned over to the said Commission a considerable initial contribution, and other sums are on deposit in American
banks for further contributions.

The Holy See is convinced that the work of the "Commission forPolish Relief" will be greatly facilitated among the Polish people,most of whom are Catholics, if the widest possible publicity is given, both in America and in Poland, to the fact that the Holy See is contributing largely to the Conmissions work of relief.
To this end, it has been suggested that consideration might be given to the advantage which would derive in many ways from the presence in Poland among the Commission's representatives of two Catholic citizens of the United States.

The Secretariate of State, therefore, expresses the hope that the Personal Representation of the President of the United States of America to His Holiness the Pope may inform His Excellency the President of the motives which actuatethe Holy See in its contribu-tions to this noble charitable undertaking, and that His Excellency may find it possible to lend the high prestige of his support to the achievement of the two purposes set forth in the preceding paragraph.

To the Personal Representation
of the President of the United States of America
to His Holiness the Pope,

R 0 M E.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.Note of Enclosure for FDR . 2. Hull - FDR 6/18/40. 3. FDR - Hull 5/24/40 . 4. FDR - Taylor 6/18/40. 5. Memo in re: US -Vatican relations. 6. Hull - Commission for Polish Relief 6/18/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR - Taylor 8/3/40

Document:

TELEGRAM AUGUST 3 1940
OFFICIAL BUSINESS---GOVERNMENT RATES

CABLE VIA STATE DEPARTMENT

TAYLOR
VATICAN CITY
ITALY

DELIGHTED TO SEE YOU EARLY SEPTEMBER BUT PLEASE BE SURE TO DO NO FORM OF
TRAVELNG UNLESS FULLY APPROVED BY MEDICAL ADVISERS. YOUR HEALTH IS MY
PRINCIPAL CONCERN. WARMEST REGARDS
ROOSEVELT


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR - Taylor 8/16/40

Document:

TELEGRAM
August 16, 1940.
OFFICIAL BUSINESS---GOVERNMENT RATES

TELEGRAM
THROUGH STATE DEPARTMENT
THROUGH
EMBASSY, ROME.

Hon. Myron Taylor:

Delighted you are strong enough to travel to Rome.
Take care of yourself.

ROOSEVELT.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Taylor - FDR 8/16/40

Document:
JIL GRAY
FLORENCE
Dated August 16, 1940
Rec'd 1:10 p.m.


Secretary of State,
Washington.

25, August 16, 4 p.m.

For the President from Myron Taylor.

"Leaving for Rome Saturday, Tittman joins me there."

PUTNAM

CSB


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR - Taylor 6/18/40

Document:
June 18,1940
My dear Myron:

Replying to your letter of April 26, 1940 enclosing a copy of a note verable of the same date regarding the unsuccessful efforts the Holy See is making to send relief to Poland, you will find enclosed a suggested form of not verable which you may see fit to use in reply to the note verable from the Vatican.

You will probably also explain the situation orally or elaborate upon the subject matter contained in this note, as your judgment may deem necessary.
Very sincerely yours,
FDR

Enclosure.


The Honorable Myron C. Taylor,
Personal Representaive of
the President,
Vatican City


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.Note of Enclosure for FDR . 2. Hull - FDR 6/18/40. 3. FDR - Hull 5/24/40 . 4. memo in re: US -Vatican relations. 5. Hull - Commission for Polish Relief 6/18/40. 6. Pope Pius XII - Taylor 4/16/40 ..



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Memo in re: US -Vatican relations.

Document:
The Persorrel Representative of the President of the United States to His Holiness, Pope Plus XII, presents his compliments to His Eminence the Cardinal Secretary of State and has the honor to advise that he has submitted to the President the note verbale N. 7515 of April 26, 1940 with reference to the unsuccessful efforts which the Holy See has been making to send relief to Poland and, at the request of the President, has the honor to submit the fol-lowing with reference thereto.

Both the President and the people of the United States are deeply sensitive of the great efforts which His Holiness, the Pope, has made, not only to preserve but also to induce peace on the earth; and, as well,the great services which have been rendered by His Holiness in alleviatig and seeking further to alleviate, the suffering that has been 'occasioned by war.

The Government of the United States is also deeply concerned and anxious that the maximum of relief should be extended to the civilian populations of war stricken Europe. There are a number of organizations, associations and private persons engaged in raising money for this purpose in the Unlted States. The Government has no connection with any of these private organizations except that provided by the Neutrality
Act, and the Government is not a participant in any of their respective activities. The governmnet has no control over their activities so long as they conform to the law.

The only agency for relief which is either official or quasi-official so
far as the goernment of the United States is concerned is the American Red Cross.

The government is, of course, concerned that there should be coordination between these various agencies, so that there will be no conflict which would be prejudicial to the main purpose of relieving the destitution and suffering due to war conditions. It is also clear that these activities should be coordinated so that there should be no conflict as between them in connection either with the time which each sets for the raising of monies by public subscription or with the disbursement of this aid in such a way as to produce the maximum relief.

It is beyond the power of the President to name the members of the commission for Polish Relief. The substance of the specific requests therefore has been transmitted to the Commission for Polish Relief, and doubtless that organization will communicate direct to the Holy See with reference thereto.

The personal Representative of the President has been further requested to express the hope that the Secretary of State to His Holiness, the Pope, will inform His Holiness of the deep sympathy which the President has for the humanitarian purposes upon which he has so effectively engaged.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.Note of Enclosure for FDR . 2. Hull - FDR 6/18/40. 3. FDR - Hull 5/24/40 . 4. FDR - Taylor 6/18/40. 5. Hull - Commission for Polish Relief 6/18/40. 6. Pope Pius XII - Taylor 4/16/40 ..



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Hull - Commission for Polish Relief 6/18/40

Document:
June 18, 1940
In reply refer to
SD


Commission for Polish Relief, Inc.,
420 Lexington Ave,
New York, New York.
Sirs:

Upon the direction of the President I have to advise you as follows.

Under date of April 26, 1940 the Secretary of State to His Holiness
addressed a communication to the Personal Representative of the President of the United States with reference to the fact that the Holy See had decided to avail itself of the good offices of the American Commission for Polish Relief as one of the agencies through which it will work in its effort to succor the people of Poland and that a considerable initial contribution had been made to the Commission and other sums on deposit on American banks could be turned over for this purpose.

The Holy See requested at that time that "the widest possible publicity be given both in America and in Poland, to the fact that the Holy See is contributing largely to the Commission's work of relief" and "that consideration might be given to the advantage which would derive in many ways from the presence in Poland among the Commission's representatives of two Catholic citizens of the United States."

A reply has been sent forward to the Secretary of State to His Holiness that the Government of the United States is deeply concerned and anxious that the maximum relief should be extended to the civilian populations of was stricken areas in Europe; however, it was pointed out that there were a large number of organizations in the United States engaged in raising money for this purpose, that the government had no connection with any of these private organizations except such as was provided by the Neutrality Act, that the government was not a participant in any of their respective activities and that therefore it was beyond the power of the President to name the members of
the Commission, as suggested. The Secretary of State to His Holiness was, however, advised that the substance of his specific request had been transmitted to the Commission for Polish Relief and that doubtless that organization would communicate
directly with the Holy See with reference thereto.

Very truly yours,
Cordell Hull


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.Note of Enclosure for FDR . 2. Hull - FDR 6/18/40. 3. FDR - Hull 5/24/40 . 4. FDR - Taylor 6/18/40. 5. Memo in re: US -Vatican relations. 6. Pope Pius XII - Taylor 4/16/40 ..



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Pope Pius XII - Taylor 4/16/40.

Document:
The Secretariate of State to His Holiness has the honor to address this communication to the Personal Representation of the President of the United States of America to His Holiness the Pope for the purpose of making known the efforts which have been made and are being made by the Holy See to afford
assistance to the stricken people of Poland.

In carrying out Their sacred mission of apostolic charity, the Sovereign Pontiffs have always been in the forefront of those who seek to alleviate the suffering which is the inevitable concomitant and consequent of war. Thus during the world war of 1914-1918 the then Sovereign Pontiff, Pope Benedict XV of venerated memory, marshalled the resources of the Holy See, in men and in treasure, for the relief of the civilian populations in wartorn countries and for the amelioration of the lot of military prisoners. It is well known also that this Pontifical work in favor of afflicted humanity was continued throughout the period of destitution which, notably in Germany, followed the cessation of hostilities.

The sad conditions ensuing upon the occupation of Poland in the autumn of last year made an instant appeal to the paternal compassion of the present Holy Father who immediately sought by every means in His power to extend, in addition to spiritual comfort,that material help which was so sorely needed by the people of that country. Beginning in October 1939, official representations were made to the Government of the Reich with a view to securing passage into Poland of the relief at the disposition of the Holy See. The replies of the German Govermnent to these and to repeated subsequent representations were dilatory and evasive. An endeavor was then made to send money to the distressed Poles in order that they might be in a position to help themselves, but the restrictions imposed and the unfavorable rate of exchange offered were such as to justify the fear that by this means only a small proportion of effective aid would ultimately reach its destination. When it finally became evident that it was not the purpose of the German Government to permit the Holy See, in its own name, to minister to the needs of these people in their tragic plight, there remained no recourse but to look elsewhere for means of arriving at the desired end.

Accordingly when information reached the Holy See that the German Government had agreed to allow the American "Commission for Polish Relief" to send supplies into Poland and to station representatives there for the purpose of supervising the distribution of these supplies to the civilian population, the Holy See saw in this permission a possible channel for communicating its own relief to the Poles. It is true that at the same time it was reported reliably from Berlin that the German authorities, while authorizing the representatives of the "Commission for Polish Relief" to remain at Warsaw to receive the supplies shipped from America, would not permit them to exercise effective supervision over distribution. Nevertheless, in spite of this discrepancy in the information in its possession, the Holy See, in view of the urgent necessity of getting immediate aid to a people in desperate straits, has decided to avail itself of the good offices of the American "Commission for Polish Relief" as one
of the agencies through which it will work in its efforts to succor the Poles. His Excellency the Apostolic Delegate at Washington, under instructions from this Secretariate of State, has already turned over to the said Commission a considerable initial contribution, and other sums are on deposit in American
banks for further contributions.

The Holy See is convinced that the work of the "Commission forPolish Relief" will be greatly facilitated among the Polish people,most of whom are Catholics, if the widest possible publicity is given, both in America and in Poland, to the fact that the Holy See is contributing largely to the Conmissions work of relief.
To this end, it has been suggested that consideration might be given to the advantage which would derive in many ways from the presence in Poland among the Commission's representatives of two Catholic citizens of the United States.

The Secretariate of State, therefore, expresses the hope that the Personal Representation of the President of the United States of America to His Holiness the Pope may inform His Excellency the President of the motives which actuatethe Holy See in its contribu-tions to this noble charitable undertaking, and that His Excellency may find it possible to lend the high prestige of his support to the achievement of the two purposes set forth in the preceding paragraph.

To the Personal Representation
of the President of the United States of America
to His Holiness the Pope,

R 0 M E.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.Note of Enclosure for FDR . 2. Hull - FDR 6/18/40. 3. FDR - Hull 5/24/40 . 4. FDR - Taylor 6/18/40. 5. Memo in re: US -Vatican relations. 6. Hull - Commission for Polish Relief 6/18/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR - Taylor 8/3/40

Document:

TELEGRAM AUGUST 3 1940
OFFICIAL BUSINESS---GOVERNMENT RATES

CABLE VIA STATE DEPARTMENT

TAYLOR
VATICAN CITY
ITALY

DELIGHTED TO SEE YOU EARLY SEPTEMBER BUT PLEASE BE SURE TO DO NO FORM OF
TRAVELNG UNLESS FULLY APPROVED BY MEDICAL ADVISERS. YOUR HEALTH IS MY
PRINCIPAL CONCERN. WARMEST REGARDS
ROOSEVELT


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR - Taylor 8/16/40

Document:

TELEGRAM
August 16, 1940.
OFFICIAL BUSINESS---GOVERNMENT RATES

TELEGRAM
THROUGH STATE DEPARTMENT
THROUGH
EMBASSY, ROME.

Hon. Myron Taylor:

Delighted you are strong enough to travel to Rome.
Take care of yourself.

ROOSEVELT.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Taylor - FDR 8/16/40

Document:
JIL GRAY
FLORENCE
Dated August 16, 1940
Rec'd 1:10 p.m.


Secretary of State,
Washington.

25, August 16, 4 p.m.

For the President from Myron Taylor.

"Leaving for Rome Saturday, Tittman joins me there."

PUTNAM

CSB


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Taylor - Hull 3/11/39.

Document:
COPY

Paris Mar 11 1939


Sec State,
Washington.

On Myron Taylor's visit with me before he left for Italy, I
suggested that I would be very much interested to learn as much as possible of the Italian situation upon his return and he has
now given me the following impressions.

He visited Rome after being in Florence a few days, and
talked with friends and acquaintances who represented both the
official point of view, the view of the intelligentsia and
Capitalistic groups, and also gained an impression of the attitude of the public generally. In official circles there is a well defined feeling that Italy" was very badly treated at the conclusion of the peace, and needs expansion to care for its over-populated country with a growing population. Their attitude was not warlike and expressed the view that the demands which had been made of France had gone too far, especially in respect to Nice, Corsica and Tunis. The view of the intelligentsia and Capitalistic groups was one of very great fear that some event might precipitate trouble; that the influence of the United States was very great, and thatthe record which had been made of her attitude through the statements of the President, the Secretary- of State, and others, had been extremely helpful and was welcomed by the Italian people. The public attitude is against war except in respect to a group of younger men limited in number who were carried away with enthusiasm attendant upon prospective action not based on thoughtful analysis or the dangerous consequences to themselves or to their country if their aims were not achieved.
He called at the Vatican to present his compliments to Cardinal Pacelli, whom he saw 'a number of times in America and where he had entertained during his visit there, and was received by a member of the Cardinal's entourage, Monsignor Hurley, who indicated very great interest in the American attitude as ab. ove expressed, and a fear that some ill advised
act might precipitate real trouble and the hope that wherever a word could be spoken that would slow down the action, that it was wise to speak it, espe.cially if it came from America. This same view was expressed by Bishop Hayes, formerly of Pittsburgh, now head of the American Catholic College in Rome. Bishop Hayes had enlarged on the spontaneousness of the receptionn given Chamberlain on his visit to Rome, and indicated that the Italians had contrasted it with the organized reception given Hitler on his visit.

In Florence he entertained one of the Italian Royal Family, the Duke of Spoleto, Admiral in the Italian Navy, nephew of the King, at luncheon. The Duke of Spoleto, who is realistic and more moderate than others in official positions, believed that some adjustment of the present demands can be made, and advised an early conference to bring about a solution. He weighed more deliberately the economic side of these problems and the resultant dangers if war ensued than did many of those with whom Taylor had talked who had political affiliations. Taylor discussed with others in Florence, including the lately returned Italian Ambassador to China, who is very well known to Ambassador Johnson, now in Washington, the feeling of Italians towards Germans generally of one of hatred. He was informed that in certain public offices in Rome itself German officers are now cooperating with Itlalian officials and this applies particularly with respect to refugee matters. It was ste. ted to him that a number of German
officers have been transported to Libya and are now there, and also that there are German officers on the Italian front back of Ventimiglia where great military preparations have been under way.

On a personal matter, the medical advisor of both Goering and Hitler came to his villa in Florence accompanied by a mutual friend. He indicated that he was enroute to Monte Carlo and found that the doctor was enroute to San Remo to join Goering who arrived there on Sunday. He invited the doctor to motor to Monte Carlo for luncheon. He came on Tuesday. The doctor advised him that Goering had that day gone to Milan to meet Mussolini and would return on Sunday and would be glad to see Taylor some time the following week, if he cared to call. Taylor indicated that it was necessary for him to return to Paris and London and sail on the 18th of March for the United States. The doctor also advised Taylor that Goering, at the end of the following week, was going to Libya, and that he, the doctor, was going with
him. He indicated that the health of both of these leaders (Goering and Hitler) was excellent and that the many rumers about the heal.th of Hitler are without foundation.

The doctor indicated that Goering's interview with Mussolini in Milan was intended to moderate the situation.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
Paris 3/11/39.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Paris 3/11/39

Document:
COPY

Paris Mar 11 1939

The Intergovernmental meeting concluded its sessions on February 13 1939 Thereafter I brought to the attention of the Jewish societies and to'a group of leaders, including Anthony Rothschild, Lord Bearstead and others, the importance of promptly acting, first, on the suggestion of the third trustee for the internal German Trust, and second, the formation of a plan to create an outside corporation or foundation to carry out in both instances the terms of the German unilateral proposals first porposed by Schacht, later modified by Wohlthat. I believe it best for many reasons to characterize as German proposals the memorandum which, while it contains many of the points that the committee had evolved at and and since Evian, is not, of cqurse, an Inter-Governmental Committee proposal. Embarrassment might ultimately flow from it if it were so styled.

On arrival in Paris on February 16th, I conferred with Ambassador Bullitt and gave him in detail all events and memoranda affecting refugees, so that he would be able intelligently to discuss the matter when and. as occasion required. I then left for Florence.

From Florence I telephoned Ambassador Phillips that I would come to Rome Thursday, February 25d, to discuss the refugee situation with him, and suggested that if' he thought well of it, it might be advisable first to visit Mussolini together and to acquaint him with preliminaries of the present German situation, and, if the opportunity occurred, to express to him the hope that in view of the progress made with Germany, he might find it possible to postpone the date of exodus in Italy from March 12th for a period of six-months or a year, giving those affected a better opportunity to locate elsewhere and the avoiding of a revival of a general world discussion on the subject, with its possible inJurious effect on the German refugee situation, which, in its present early stages under the memorandum, might be seriously i'mpaired if the subject were renewed in a world-wide sense.

For his further information, I submitted to him, first, a copy of Sir Andrew MacFadden's report on the Italian situation; second, a copy of a memorandum which had been prepared by the Jewish leaders in London and Paris; third, a copy of Sir Herbert Emerson's ,memorandum regarding settlement projects; and fourth, minutes of the Inter-Governmental Committee which contained the Gernan memorandum, of which memoramndum he kept a copy. This will be helpful to him in the discussions which may take place with Italian officials. Mussolini was not in Rome when I was there, but was understood te be in the Italian Alps on vacation. Ciane left Rome about the time I arrived. The Ambassador had inquired if I sheuld be received by Mussolini a week later when he returned. The answer was, I believe, that it was net then convenient. My Italian friends in London and Paris had suggested contact with Mussolini and not Ctane, who was reported as violently anti-Jewish and not fully friendly toward America. I suggested to the Ambassador that I should net create an issue owsr the questien of a visit te Mussolini.

I returned to Flerence the follewing day, February 24th. The Ambassador to Rome, has, I believe, asked your instructions whether he should proceed thr6ugh the usual channel, Ciane, te discuss the subject along the lines indicated. I am not aware ef your reply.

I left Florence for Monte Carlo en Saturday last, to visit a few friends who were there ill. It is likely that Mr. Bullitt will in another telegram recite ether incidents which may be of interest.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
Taylor - Hull 3/11/39..



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Taylor - Hull 3/11/39.

Document:
COPY

Paris Mar 11 1939


Sec State,
Washington.

On Myron Taylor's visit with me before he left for Italy, I
suggested that I would be very much interested to learn as much as possible of the Italian situation upon his return and he has
now given me the following impressions.

He visited Rome after being in Florence a few days, and
talked with friends and acquaintances who represented both the
official point of view, the view of the intelligentsia and
Capitalistic groups, and also gained an impression of the attitude of the public generally. In official circles there is a well defined feeling that Italy" was very badly treated at the conclusion of the peace, and needs expansion to care for its over-populated country with a growing population. Their attitude was not warlike and expressed the view that the demands which had been made of France had gone too far, especially in respect to Nice, Corsica and Tunis. The view of the intelligentsia and Capitalistic groups was one of very great fear that some event might precipitate trouble; that the influence of the United States was very great, and thatthe record which had been made of her attitude through the statements of the President, the Secretary- of State, and others, had been extremely helpful and was welcomed by the Italian people. The public attitude is against war except in respect to a group of younger men limited in number who were carried away with enthusiasm attendant upon prospective action not based on thoughtful analysis or the dangerous consequences to themselves or to their country if their aims were not achieved.
He called at the Vatican to present his compliments to Cardinal Pacelli, whom he saw 'a number of times in America and where he had entertained during his visit there, and was received by a member of the Cardinal's entourage, Monsignor Hurley, who indicated very great interest in the American attitude as ab. ove expressed, and a fear that some ill advised
act might precipitate real trouble and the hope that wherever a word could be spoken that would slow down the action, that it was wise to speak it, espe.cially if it came from America. This same view was expressed by Bishop Hayes, formerly of Pittsburgh, now head of the American Catholic College in Rome. Bishop Hayes had enlarged on the spontaneousness of the receptionn given Chamberlain on his visit to Rome, and indicated that the Italians had contrasted it with the organized reception given Hitler on his visit.

In Florence he entertained one of the Italian Royal Family, the Duke of Spoleto, Admiral in the Italian Navy, nephew of the King, at luncheon. The Duke of Spoleto, who is realistic and more moderate than others in official positions, believed that some adjustment of the present demands can be made, and advised an early conference to bring about a solution. He weighed more deliberately the economic side of these problems and the resultant dangers if war ensued than did many of those with whom Taylor had talked who had political affiliations. Taylor discussed with others in Florence, including the lately returned Italian Ambassador to China, who is very well known to Ambassador Johnson, now in Washington, the feeling of Italians towards Germans generally of one of hatred. He was informed that in certain public offices in Rome itself German officers are now cooperating with Itlalian officials and this applies particularly with respect to refugee matters. It was ste. ted to him that a number of German
officers have been transported to Libya and are now there, and also that there are German officers on the Italian front back of Ventimiglia where great military preparations have been under way.

On a personal matter, the medical advisor of both Goering and Hitler came to his villa in Florence accompanied by a mutual friend. He indicated that he was enroute to Monte Carlo and found that the doctor was enroute to San Remo to join Goering who arrived there on Sunday. He invited the doctor to motor to Monte Carlo for luncheon. He came on Tuesday. The doctor advised him that Goering had that day gone to Milan to meet Mussolini and would return on Sunday and would be glad to see Taylor some time the following week, if he cared to call. Taylor indicated that it was necessary for him to return to Paris and London and sail on the 18th of March for the United States. The doctor also advised Taylor that Goering, at the end of the following week, was going to Libya, and that he, the doctor, was going with
him. He indicated that the health of both of these leaders (Goering and Hitler) was excellent and that the many rumers about the heal.th of Hitler are without foundation.

The doctor indicated that Goering's interview with Mussolini in Milan was intended to moderate the situation.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
Paris 3/11/39.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Paris 3/11/39

Document:
COPY

Paris Mar 11 1939

The Intergovernmental meeting concluded its sessions on February 13 1939 Thereafter I brought to the attention of the Jewish societies and to'a group of leaders, including Anthony Rothschild, Lord Bearstead and others, the importance of promptly acting, first, on the suggestion of the third trustee for the internal German Trust, and second, the formation of a plan to create an outside corporation or foundation to carry out in both instances the terms of the German unilateral proposals first porposed by Schacht, later modified by Wohlthat. I believe it best for many reasons to characterize as German proposals the memorandum which, while it contains many of the points that the committee had evolved at and and since Evian, is not, of cqurse, an Inter-Governmental Committee proposal. Embarrassment might ultimately flow from it if it were so styled.

On arrival in Paris on February 16th, I conferred with Ambassador Bullitt and gave him in detail all events and memoranda affecting refugees, so that he would be able intelligently to discuss the matter when and. as occasion required. I then left for Florence.

From Florence I telephoned Ambassador Phillips that I would come to Rome Thursday, February 25d, to discuss the refugee situation with him, and suggested that if' he thought well of it, it might be advisable first to visit Mussolini together and to acquaint him with preliminaries of the present German situation, and, if the opportunity occurred, to express to him the hope that in view of the progress made with Germany, he might find it possible to postpone the date of exodus in Italy from March 12th for a period of six-months or a year, giving those affected a better opportunity to locate elsewhere and the avoiding of a revival of a general world discussion on the subject, with its possible inJurious effect on the German refugee situation, which, in its present early stages under the memorandum, might be seriously i'mpaired if the subject were renewed in a world-wide sense.

For his further information, I submitted to him, first, a copy of Sir Andrew MacFadden's report on the Italian situation; second, a copy of a memorandum which had been prepared by the Jewish leaders in London and Paris; third, a copy of Sir Herbert Emerson's ,memorandum regarding settlement projects; and fourth, minutes of the Inter-Governmental Committee which contained the Gernan memorandum, of which memoramndum he kept a copy. This will be helpful to him in the discussions which may take place with Italian officials. Mussolini was not in Rome when I was there, but was understood te be in the Italian Alps on vacation. Ciane left Rome about the time I arrived. The Ambassador had inquired if I sheuld be received by Mussolini a week later when he returned. The answer was, I believe, that it was net then convenient. My Italian friends in London and Paris had suggested contact with Mussolini and not Ctane, who was reported as violently anti-Jewish and not fully friendly toward America. I suggested to the Ambassador that I should net create an issue owsr the questien of a visit te Mussolini.

I returned to Flerence the follewing day, February 24th. The Ambassador to Rome, has, I believe, asked your instructions whether he should proceed thr6ugh the usual channel, Ciane, te discuss the subject along the lines indicated. I am not aware ef your reply.

I left Florence for Monte Carlo en Saturday last, to visit a few friends who were there ill. It is likely that Mr. Bullitt will in another telegram recite ether incidents which may be of interest.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
Taylor - Hull 3/11/39..



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Welles - FDR 5/16/39

Document:

ADDRESS OFFICIAL COMMUNICATIONS TO
THE SECRETARY OF STATE
WASHINGTON, D.C.
DEPARTMENT OF STATE
WASHINGTON
MAY 16, 1939

My dear Mr. President:
Father Carroll, the Assistant to Monsignor Ready who is at the moment out of Washington, called to see me this morning at the request of teh Apostolic Delegate. The Delegate had yesterday recieved a telegram from the Papal Secretary with a request that its contents be communicated to this Government.

The message was as follows:

The Pope desired you to know that because of his belief that the peace of Europe was gravely endangered, he had on May 3 approached the governments of Great Britain, France, Poland, Germany, and Italy and had inquired of them whether they believed the peace of Europe to be in imminent danger, and second, whether those governments believed a peace conference to be attended by the representatives of the five powers mentioned to settle outstanding problems would be feasible. The Vatican had been informed as a result of the approaches made that none of the five governments believed the situation to be precarious and that the general impression was that a conference of the type proposed would not at that time be expedient.

In conclusion, the Apostolic Delegate was instructed to let you know that if later on such a conference appeared to be expedient, the Pope would communicate with you before any final steps were taken.

I asked Father Carroll to tell the Delegate that I deeply appreciated the message recieved and that I would immediately communicate its contents to you.

Believe me,
Faithfully yours,

/s/ Sumner Wells


The President,
The White House.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Celler - FDR 8/2/39.

Document:
DEPARTMENT OF STATE
WASHINGTON
August 2, 1939

My dear Mr. President:

I enclose a copy of a long letter from Representative Celler urging the establishment by this Government of diplomatic relations with the Holy See. I have acknowledged teh reciept of this letter but did not indicate that I was sending you a copy.
Faithfully yours,
/s/ Sumner Wells



Enclosure:

Copy of letter from
Representative Celler.

The President,
The White House.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
Taylor - Hull 7/24/39.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Taylor - Hull 7/24/39

Document:
CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
WASHINGTON, D. C.

July 24, 1939.

Hon. Cordell Hull,
Secretary of State,
Washington, D.C.

My dear Mr. Secretary:

At the Coronation Ceremonies of Pope Pius XII, there was present as a representative of President Roosevelt, our present Ambassador to England, the Honorable Joseph P. Kennedy. Mr. Kennedy's presence served to emphasize the very friendly relations that have always existed between our Government and the Papal See.

An examination of the records will reveal that diplomatic relations with the Holy See were first established on December 15, 1784, when the Papal Nuncio at Paris wrote to the American Commissioners that his Government had agreed to open the ports of Civita Vecchia on the Mediterranean, and Ancona on the Adriatic, to American vessels.

On June 26, 1797, John Baptist Sartori of Rome was commissioned as the first Consul to represent the United States in the Papal Dominions.

The diplomatic relations thus established between our country and the Papal States were maintained for nearly three three quarterss of a century in a spirit of a mutual friendship and respect. In 1867, the American mission to Rome came to an official end, but through no fault or action of the Holy See. Congress simply refused to continue the appropriation for the American mission. There was question as whether or not then Pope Pius had recognized the Confederacy. Congress had
merely refused to continue the necessary appropriation, so that as Secretary of State Seward stated, "Legally, the action of congress left the mission still exixting, but without compensation".
In my opinion, the action of our government was somewhat hasty and ill-advised, was an ungenerous return for the good-will of the Papal See had always manifested towards our government and our people. I Believe the time has now come when these diplomatic relations, thus groundlessly severed, should be restored. That restoration would be a clarion call to the civilized peoples of the world that religious and personal liberties are inherent in our democracy. In this connenction
I quote the interesting language used by Mr. Chief Justice Fuller in the opinion of hte Municipality of Ponce v. Roman Catholic Apostolic church in Porto Rico, decided June 1, 1908: "The corporate existence of the Roman Catholic Church, as well as the position occupied by the papacy, has always been recognized by the Government of the united States.

"At one time the United States maintained diplomatic relations with the Papal States, which continued up to the time of the loss of the temporal power of the papacy.
(Moore's Digest of Int. Law, vol. l, pp.130, 131)

"The Holy See still occupies a recognized position in international law, of which the courts must take Judicial notice.

"The Pope, though deprived of the territorial dominion which he formerly enjoyed, holds, as sovereign pontiff and head of the Roman Catholic Church, an exceptional position.
Though, in default of territory, he is not a temporal sovereign, he is in many respects treated as such. He has the right of active and passive legation, and his envoys of the first class, his apostolic nuncios, are specially privileged . .. '" (1 Moore' s Dig. 39)

Furthermore, practlcally all countries-send their diplomatic representatives to the Court of the Supreme Pontiff and diplomatic representatives of the Holy See are received with the respect
and consideration customarily accorded to diplomatic agents.

A representative of our country residing at the Holy See would do much to bring to the fore the fact that in our country we respect to the full the rights of religious freedom, as we do also
those accompanying precious rights of freedom of the press, freedom of speech and freedom of assemblage.' A reinstatement of relations with the Holy See would dramatically serve to recall to the world that intolerance and religious hatred and bigotry cannot flourish here. It would enkindle in our
own hearts sympathy for the thousands of unfortunates who have been castigated, tortured and ruined because of a dictator's insane hate and venom. Events abroad indicate in no uncertain terms the great stake which religion must play in the
preservation of democracy against the savage and merciless inroads of Fascism, Naziism and Communism. These ideologies exclude the virtues of Christianity- faith, hope and charity,
benevolence and brotherly love- those virtues which are the very basis of our moral code.

The unbroken tradition of the Holy see with respect
to international peace has been worthily continued to the present by the lamented supreme Pontiff Pius XI, who, in his allocution on peace in 1930, condemned in strongest terms "hard and selfish
nationalism" and to the hour of his death courageously stood firm against every policy that threatened peace by undermining the principles of Justice and charity in relations among
nations. The present Supreme Pontiff Pius XII, in the brief space that has elapsed since his elevation to the highest office in the Catholic Church, already has given eloquent evidence of his purpose to labor for peace among nations based on Justice and charity. History discloses that democracies value the church and religion; that dictatorships ridicule the church and despise religion. Democracies protect the church, dictatorships destroy it. Thus, our Democracy has always set a high. value on religion and on the church.

The Papacy has always placed a high value on Justice
and charity in relations among men and among nations. The first Popes, for example, said nothing about anti-semitism since they themselves, like their Master Christ, were Jews and subject to all the inJustices heaped upon Jews. As early as the sixth century- in the year ,538 - Pope Gregory the Great wrote: "We forbid you to molest the Jews or to lay upon them restrictions not imposed by the established laws; we further permit them to live as Romans and to dispose of their property as they will."
Heinrich Graetz, Jewish Historian and author of a monumental work, "History of the Jews", writes: "It is remarkable that the Bishops of Rome, the recognized champions of Christianity,
treated the Jews with the utmost toleration and liberality. The occupants of the Papal throne shielded the Jews and exhorted the clergy and the princes against the use of force in converting them to Christianity."

Pope Pius XI declared on July 30, 1938, referring to the unscientific racial theories of Naziism: "It is forgotten that humankind, the whole of humankind, is a single, great universal human race. All men are, above all, members of the same great kind. They all belong to the single great family of the living.

Humankind is, therefore, a single universal race."Nazi terror directed the storming of the homes of Cardinals Innitzer and Faulhaber. The Catholic priesthood is held up to ridicule and scorn and shame. Hundreds of Protestant Clergymen of the Confessional church have been arrested, and Pastor Niemoeller still languishes in a Nazi cell!

I believe the nation generally would welcome your course and understanding in this matter of re-establishing diplomatic relations with the Holy See. A pronouncement to this effect would scatter the termites of bigotry and rodents of irreligion the world over. No sincere citizen of the United States, familiar with the history of his country and its relations with the Holy See, can reasonably object to the re-establishment of diplomatic relations between the government of the United States and the Holy See.

Lastly, there has ascended to the Papal Throne, Pope Pius XII, a religious man of great erudition, wisdom and tolerance. As Anne O'Hara McCormick of the New York Times has written: "He is a spiritual plenipotentiary of great influence, though he has none but moral weapons to impress a world at arms ."

For several, months, Pope Pius XII has been endeavoring to bring peace to a war-threatened world. He has given instructions to his Papal Nuncios who are accredited to the various capitals of the world to invite the interested governments to consider peacefully and in true religious amity and accord, solutions of the grave issues, confronting the various nations, which are disturbing the world. Let us help him in his glorious mission of Peace by sending our delegate to him.

Pope Pius XII has expressed great admiration and affection for the people of the United States. He has extended his hand of fellowship to us. We should grasp it. We should re-establish diplomatic relations with the Holy See

With assurances of high esteem, I am

Cordially yours,

EMANUEL CELLER


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
Celler - FDR 8/2/39.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR - Welles 8/6/39.

Document:
The White House
WAHINGTON

August 6, 1939

Memorandum for
The Undersecretary of State

Will you speak to me about this?

F.D.R.

Letter from Undersecretary Welles
to the President, dated August l,
enclosin copy of letter from
Ambassador Phillips to Secretary
Welles in re advantage which might
be gained by this Government If
we had direct diplomatic relations
with the Vatican.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
see attachment Welles - FDR 8/1/39.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Welles - FDR 8/1/39

Document:

DEPARTMENT OF STATE

WASHINGTON

August, 1 1939

My dear Mr. President


Some weeks ago the Secretary and I were speaking of
the advantage which might be gained by this Government if we had direct dilplomatic relations with the Vatican. I think it is unquestionable that the Vatican has many
sources of information, particularly with regard to what
is actually going on in Germany, Italy, and Spain, which
we do not possess, and it seemed to us that the question
of whether it would be desirable for our Government to
obtain access to this information was of considerable importance.

At Mr. Hull's suggestion I wrote a personal letter
to Bill Phillips asking his opinion. I have this morning
received Bill' s reply under date of July 19 and I am sending you a copy of his letter for your information.

Believe me

Faithfully yours
{Sumner Wells}
Enclosure:
From Ambassador Phlllips ,

July 19, 1939.
The President,
The White House.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
see attachmentFDR - Welles 8/6/39.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Hull - FDR 10/20/39

Document:
October 20 1939

My dear Mr. President:

I enclose a copy of a cablegram which was received on October 10 by the Aposolic Delegate in Washington from the Secretariate of State of the Holy See, a copy of which was left with an officer of the department by Monsignor Ready, in regard to information recieved by the Secretariate of State from an unnamed source that Chinese officials "desire the Holy See to take steps to establish peace between China and Japan". I enclose also a memorandum of October 12 in analysis of the message from the Secretariate of State and in comment upon the general question of possible mediation on the part of this Government between Japan and China.

I am in general agreement with the statements and the conclusions expressed in the memorandum, which I venture to hope you will find time to read.

By way of acknowledgment of the copy of the cable-gram to the Apostolic Delegate which was left with us, I propose, subject to your approval, to ask Monsignor Ready to call and to inform him that the spirit which prompted the Secretariats of State of the Holy See to bring to the attention of this Government the informa-
tion contained in the Secretariats of states cablegram
is very much appreciated that the communication has
been brought to your attention; and that it is our con-
stant desire to make such contribution as may seem ap-
propriate and be practicable toward the cause of peace among nations.
Faithfully yours,

Cordell Hull

enclosures:
1. Cablegram from the Secretariate of State.
2. Memorandum of October 12.

The President,
the White House


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Proposed Statement by Spellman 12/24/39

Document:
{Proposed Statement by Archbishop Spellman, Dec. 24, 1939}

As an American, living and working and willing to die for the welfare of my country and my countrymen, all of them, I am very happy that President Roosevelt has harmonized the voice of Pope Pius XII with his own clarion call for peace among nations and peoples. It is opportune that, on the vigil of the anniversary of the birth of Prince of Peace, the President of the United States, should take this action for peace. President Roosevelt is our leader, the leader of a free people determined on peace for ourselves, desirous of peace for others. We are a people who believe in, who practice and defend freedom of religion, freedom in the dissemination of truth, freedom of assembly, freedom of trade. It is timely that our president, intrepid enunciator of these principles and champion of them, should join with other forces for peace, for charitable and humanitarian influences. Such an
influence is the Catholic Church. As an American, I rejoice in this action of President Roosevelt.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Note Attached to Pope Pius XII - FDR 1/7/40

Document:
The President had the original
of this letter framed. It was
written in script and signed
by the Pope.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Pope Pius XII - FDR 1/7/40.

Document:
To his Excellency
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
President of the United States of America

Pius PP. XII

Most Excellent Sir:
Health and Prosperity.

The memorable message that your Excellency was pleased to have forwarded to Us on the eve of the Holy Feast of Christmas has brightened with a ray of consolation, of hope and confidence, the suffering, the heart-rending fear and the bitterness of the peoples caught up in the vortex of war. For this all right-minded men have paid you spontaneous tribute to their sincere gratitude. We have been deeply moved by the moble thought contained
in your note, in which the spirt of christmas and the desire to see it applied to the great human problems have found such eloquent expression; and fully persuaded it to the distinguished
gathering present that very morning in the Consistorial Hall of this Apostolic Vatican Palce, solemnly expressing before the world, Catholic and non-catholic alike, our appreciation of this
courageous document, inspired by a far-seeing statesmanship and a profound human sympathy.

We have been particularly impressed by one characteristic feature of Your Excellency's message: the vital, spiritual contact with the thoughts and feelings, the hopes and the aspirations of
the masses of the people, of those classes, namely, on whom more than others, and in a measure never felt before, weighs the burden of sorrow and sacrifice imposed by the present restless
and tempestuous hour. Also for this reason, none perhaps better than We can understand the meaning, the revealing power and the warmth of feeling manifest in this act of your Excellency.
In fact Our own daily Experience tells Us of the deep-seated yearning for peace that fills the hearts of the common people. In the measure that the war with its direct and indirect repercussions spreads; and the more economic, social and family life is forcibly wrenched from its normal bases by the continuation of the war, and is forced along the way of sacrifice and every kind of privation, the bitter need of which is not always plain to all; so much more intense is the longing for peace that pervades the hearts of men and their determination to find and to apply the means that lead to peace . When that day dawns- and We would like to hope that it is not too far distant-on which the roar of battle will lapse into silence and there will arise the possibility of establishing a true
and sound peace dictated by the principles of justice and equity, only he will be able to discern the path that should be followed who unites with high political power a clear understanding
of the voice of humanity along with a sincere reverence for the divine precepts of life as found in hte Gospel of Christ. only men of such moral stature will be able to create the peace, that will compensate for the incalculable sacrifices of this war and clear the way for a comity of nations,fair to all, efficacious and sustained by mutual confidence.

We are fully aware of how stubborn the obstacles are that stand in the way of attaining this goal, and how they become daily more difficult to surmount. And if the friends of peace do not wish their labors to be in vain, they should visualize distinctly the seriousness of these obstacles, and the consequently
slight probability of immediate success so long as the present state of the opposing forces remains essentially unchanged.

As Vicar on earth of the Prince of Peace, from the first days of Our
Pontificate We have dedicated Our efforts and Our solicitude to the purpose of maintaining peace, and afterwards of reestablishing it. Heedless of momentary lack of success and of the difficulties involved, We are continuing to follow
along the path marked out for Us by Our Apostolic mission. As We walk this path, often rough and thorny, the echo which reaches Us from countless souls, both within and outside the Church, together with the consciousness of duty done, is for Us abundant and consoling reward.

And now that in this hour of world-wide pain and misgiving the Chief Magistrate of the great North American Federation, under the spell of the Holy Night of Christmas, should have taken such a prominent place in the vanguard of these who would promote
peace and generously succor the victims of the war, bespeaks a providential help, which We acknowledge with grateful Joy and increased confidence. It is any exemplary act of fraternal and hearty solidarity between the New and the Old World in
defence against the chilling breath of aggressive and deadly godless and anti-christian tendencies, that threaten to dry up, the fountainhead, whence civilization has come and drawn its strength.

In such circumstances We shall find a special satisfaction, as We have already informed Your Excellency, in receiving with all the honor due to his well-known qualifications and to the dignity of his important mission, the representative who is to be sent to Us as the faithful interpreter of your mind regarding the procuring of peace and the alleviation of sufferings consequent upon the war.

Recalling with keen Joy the pleasang memories left Us after Our unforgettable visit to your great nation, and living over again the sincere pleasure that personal acquaintance with Your Excellency brought Us, We express in turn Our hearty good wishes a most fervent prayer for the prosperity of Your Excellency and of all the people of the United States.

Given at Rome, at St. Peter's, the 7th day of January 1940,the first Year of Our Pontificate.

P I U S .P P. X I I


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
See note attached to Pope Pius XII - FDR 1/7/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Taylor - FDR 2/1/40.

Document:
DEPARTMENT OF STATE
WASHINGTON

February 1, 1940

My dear Mr. President:

When Mr. Myron Taylor was here he reminded the Department that he had received no written letter of appointment from you and therefore I am enclosing a possible draft of such a letter for your signature if you approve

Faithfully yours,


Enclosure:
To Mr. Myron Taylor.



The President,
The White House.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1. FDR - Taylor, not sent. 2. FDR - Taylor 1/30/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR - Taylor, not sent.

Document:
{not Sent}


My dear Mr. Taylor;

Reposing special faith and confidence in you I am asking you to procees at your early convenience to Italy, there to act as my personal representative to His Holiness, Pope Pius XII. My purpose in entrusting you with this mission was set forth in my letter of December 23, 1939 to the Pope, a copy which is enclosed. I am also asking you personally to convey a further communication to His Holiness.

I may from time to time request you to serve as the channel of communication for any views I may wish to exchange to the Pope. You will, of course, communicate to this Government any matters
which may come to your attention in the performance of your mission which you may feel will serve the best interest of the United States.

With all best wishes for the success of your mission, I am,
Very sincerely yours,

Enclosure:
As stated.


THe Honorable
Myron C. Taylor
71 Broadway
New York, New York


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.Taylor - FDR 2/1/40 2. FDR - Taylor 1/30/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR - Taylor 1/30/40

Document:
My dear Mr. Taylor:

Reposing special faith and confidence in you I am asking you to proceed at your early convenience to Italy, there to act as my personal representative to His Holiness Pope Pius XII. My purpose in entrusting you with this mission was set forth in my letter of December 23, 1939 to the Pope, a copy which is enclosed. I am also asking you personally to convay a further communication to
His Holiness.

I may from time to time request you to serve as the channel of communication for any views I may wish to exchange with the Pope. You will, of course, communicate to this Government
any matters which may come to your attenion in the performance of your mission which you may feel will serve the best interest of the United States.

With all best wishes for the success of your mission, I am,
Very sincerely yours,


Enclosure:
As Stated.


The Honorable
Myron C. Taylor
71 Broadway,
New York, New York

EU:SR:LG 1-30-40 A-M A-B U


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.Taylor - FDR 2/1/40 2. FDR - Taylor, not sent.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR - Taylor 2/4/40.

Document:

{sent Feb. 4, 1940}

My Dear Mr. Taylor:

Reposing special faith and confidence in you I am asking you to proceed at your early convenience to Italy, there to act as my personal representative, with the rank of ambassador, to His
Holiness, Pope Pius XII. My purpose in entrusting you wiht this mission was set forth in my letter of December 23, 1939 to the Pope, a copy of which is enclosed. I am also asking you
personally to convay a further communication to His Holiness.
I may from time to time request you to serve as the channel of communication for any matters which may come to your attention in the performance of your mission which may come to your
attention in the performance of your mission which you may feel will serve the best interest of the United States.

With all best wishes for the success of your mission, I am,
Very sincerely yours,


Enclosure:
As states.


The Honorable
Myron C. Taylor,
71 Broadway,
New York, New York.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1. Spruks - State Dept. 2. FDR - Taylor, not sent. 3. S. Woodward - Watson 2/10/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Spruks - State Dept.

Document:
DEPARTMENT OF STATE
DIVISION OF PROTOCOL
I called Havens in FA to see who drafted the letter. FA knows nothing about it.

I then called Mr. Serle who stated he had handled most of this matter but did not draft the letter. He said he would call Gen. Watson. I told him that I would ask you to get the letter so it can be changed.
Spruks


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1. Taylor - FDR 2/4/40. 2. FDR - Taylor, not sent. 3. S. Woodward - Watson 2/10/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR - Taylor, not sent

Document:
THE WHITE HOUSE
WASHINGTON
not sent- see: attached letter to Taylor of Feb-4-194? which was sent (handwritten)

My dear Mr. Taylor:

Reposing special faith and confidence in you I am asking you to proceed at your early convenience to Italy, there to act as my personal representative to His Holiness, Pope Pius XII. My purpose in entrusting you with this mission was set forth in my letter of December 23, 1939 to the Pope, a copy of which is
enclosed. I am also asking you personally to convey a further communication to His Holiness.

I may from time to time request you to serve as the channel of communication for any views I may wish to exchange with the Pope. you will, of course, communicate to this Government any matters which may come to your attention in the performance of your mission which you may feel will serve the best interest
of the United States.

With all best wishes for the success of your mission, I am,

Very Sincerely yours,

Enclosure:
As stated.

The Honorable
Myron C. Taylor,
71 Broadway,
New York, New York.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1. Taylor - FDR 2/4/40. 2. Spruks - State Dept. 3. S. Woodward - Watson 2/10/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: S. Woodward - Watson 2/10/40

Document:

DEPARTMENT OF STATE
division of protocol


February 10, 1940

General Watson:

In the original draft of this letter to Mr. Myron C. Taylor, the words
"with the rank of ambassador" did not appear. At Mr. Taylor's request they have been inserted in a new draft, and if the President will sign it, I shall see that Mr. Taylor gets it before he sails. The drafts are otherwise identical.

/s/stanley woodward
Stanley Woodward,
Acting Chief of Protocol.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1. Taylor - FDR 2/4/40. 2. Spruks - State Dept. 3. Taylor - FDR 2/4/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: SR - Welles, n.d.

Document:
(handwritten)

S W:

I left this memo at
Mr Welle's office. Mrs.
Clarkson gave it back to
me saying with regard to
the last paragraph that
Mr Welles had said
"by all means."
S.R.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
State Dept. 2/9/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: State Dept. 2/9/40

Document:
DEPARTMENT OF STATE DIVISION OF EUROPEAN AFFAIRS

February 9, 1940


Mr. Myron Taylor telephoned this morning to say that the President had showed him yesterday the letter of appointment which was to be signed by the President and sent to Mr. Taylor. Mr. Taylor said that the letter made no mention of his status as Ambassador. He attached considerable importance to the mention of this, and
hoped that it could be inserted.

The letter is now in the hands of the President. Would you authorize the Protocol Division to communicate Mr. Taylor's wishes to the White House.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
SR - Welles, n.d..



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Hull - FDR 2/7/40.

Document:
DEPARTMENT OF STATE
THE SECRETARY
February 7, 1940

Draft of letter for the President
to write to the Pope in longhand
for delivery by Mr. Myron Taylor.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1. FDR - Pope Pius XII, 2/14/40. 2. FDR - Pope Pius XII, 2/14/40. 3. draft - FDR - Pope Pius XII, 2/14/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR - Pope Pius XII, 2/14/40

Document:
COPY OF LONGHAND LETTER
THE WHITE HOUSE
WASHINGTON
Feb 14th 1940

Your Holiness:-

In my letter of December 23, 1939 I had the honor to suggest that it would give me great satisfaction to send to you my own representative in order that out parallel endeavors for peace and the alleviation of suffering might be assisted. Your Holiness was good enough to reply that the choice of Mr. Myron C. Taylor as my representative was acceptable and that you would receive him.

I am entrusting this special mission to Mr. Taylor who is a very old friend of mine, and in whom I repose the utmost confidence.

His humanitarian efforts in behalf of those whom poltical disruption has rendered homeless are well known to Your Holiness. I shall be happy to feel that he may be the channel of communication for any views you and I may wish to exchange in the interest of concord among the peoples of the world.

I am asking Mr. Taylor to convey my cordial greetings to you, my old and good friend, and my sicere hope that the common ideals of religion and of humanity itself can have united expression for the reestablishment of a more permanent peace on the foundations of freedom, and an assurance of life and integrity of all nations under God.
Cordially your friend,
Franklin D. Roosevelt


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1. Hull - FDR 2/7/40. . 2. draft - FDR - Pope Pius XII, 2/14/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: draft - FDR - Pope Pius XII, 2/14/40

Document:
Your Holiness:

In my letter of December 23, 1939 I had the honor to suggest to Your Holiness that it would give me great satisfaction to send to You my own representative in order that our parallel endeavors for peace and the alleviation of suffering might be assisted. Your Holiness was good enough to reply that the choice of the honorable Myron C. Taylor as my representative was acceptable
and that You would receive him.

I am entrusting this special mission to Mr. Taylor,in whom I repose the utmost confidence. His humanitarian effort on behalf of those whom political disruption have rendered homeless are doubtless already known to Your Holiness. I shall be happy to feel that my representative may be the channel of communication for any views we may wish to exchange in the interest of the restoration of
concord among the peoples of the world.

I am asking Mr. Taylor to convey my cordial greetings and my sincere hope that the common ideals of humanity and of religion can have united expression for the reestablishment of peace upon the foundations of freedom and assurances of life and independence for all nations.

Cordially yours,


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1. Hull - FDR 2/7/40. . 2. FDR - Pope Pius XII, 2/14/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Taylor - FDR 2/27/40

Document:
U.S.S. TUSCALOOSA


FOLLOWING FROM MYRON TAYLOR IN ROME ITALY QUOTE PRESENTATION CEREMONIES
CONCLUDED WITH HIGHEST SPIRITUAL DIGNITY AND HUMAN UNDERSTANDING STOP HIS
HOLINESS CONVEYS THROUGH ME HIS BLESSING AND WARMEST REGARDS TO YOU PERSONALLY
STOP HIS EMININENCE CARDINAL SECRETARY OF STATE JOINS IN GREETINGS AND BEST
WISHES STOP BEST REGARDS

DATE: 27FEB40
FROM: PRESIDENT'S EXEC OFFICE
TO: PRESIDENT


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Summerlin - FDR 4/5/40

Document:
Letter from George T. Summerlin

April 5, 1940

Encloses despatch from Myron Taylor transmitting a copy of a letter from Cardinal Maglione and gift of two copies of Annuario Pontificio--parchment bound copy for the President and the other one for Secretary of State.

Mr. Taylor was requested to convey to the Cardinal an appropriate expression of the President's appreciation for the gift.

The following letters were attached to the book and sent to the White House:
Letter to Sec of State from Myron Taylor--March 8, 1940 re Annuario Pontificio (Pontifical Year Book) which was forwarded by the Cardinal to Taylor together with his letter dated Feb 29, 1940.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Welles - FDR 4/6/40.

Document:
DEPARTMENT OF STATE

WASHINGTON

April 6, 1940

My dear Mr. President:

With reference to your memorandum of April l,1940 concerning publication of the Pope's letter, it has been decided after due consideration of all aspects not to publish the letter unless you should wish otherwise. Mr. Taylor has been so informed.

The original of the letter is returned herewith.
Faithfully yours,
Enclosure:
From Pope Plus XII,
March 16, 1940.

The President,
The White House.

The Pope' s letter of March 16, 1940
which was handed to the President
by Sumner Welles is attached.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1. FDR - Hull and Welles, 4/1/40. 2. Welles - FDR 3/30/40. 3. Pope Pius XII - FDR n.d. 4. Pope Pius XII - FDR 3/16/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR - Hull and Welles, 4/1/40

Document:
April 1, 1940

MEMORANDUM FOR
THE SECRETARY OF STATE
THE UNDERSECRETARY OF STATE

Myron Taylor has asked if the Pope's letter is to be given out here so that it can be given out in Rome at the same time. Will you make the decision and does the letter need a reply?
F.D.R.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1. Welles - FDR 4/6/40. 2. Welles - FDR 3/30/40. 3. Pope Pius XII - FDR n.d. 4. Pope Pius XII - FDR 3/16/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Welles - FDR 3/30/40

Document:
THE UNDER SECRETARY OF STATE
WASHINGTON

March 30, 1940.

My dear Mr. President:

I enclose a copy of a telegram received from Mr. Myron Taylor in Rome in regard to the publication of the Pope's letter whlch I handed to you this morning. It seems apparent that the Vatican desires to give publicity to this communication which could here be done by here by having copies handed to the press by Mr. Early.

If you approve, a delay of thlrty-six hours would seem desirable in order that the Vaitcan might be informed in sufficient time to make arrangements for simultaneous publication.
Faithfully yours,

Enclosure:
From Rome,
March 29, 1940.

The President,
The White House.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1. Welles - FDR 4/6/40. 2. FDR - Hull and Welles, 4/1/40 . 3. Pope Pius XII - FDR n.d. 4. Pope Pius XII - FDR 3/16/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Pope Pius XII - FDR n.d.

Document:
To His Excellency
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
President of the United States of America


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1. Welles - FDR 4/6/40. 2. FDR - Hull and Welles, 4/1/40 . 3. Welles - FDR 3/30/40 4. Pope Pius XII - FDR 3/16/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Pope Pius XII - FDR 3/16/40

Document:
To His Excellency
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
President of the United States of America

Pius P.P. XII

Most Excellent Sir:
Health and Prosperity


The pleasure which was ours on the twenty-seventh day of Februaury as We received in Solemn Audience the Representative of Your Excellency was enhanced by the autograph letter which be bore from you and placed into our hands. We are sicerely grateful for this further evidence of your solicitude for the restoration of peace among nations now estranged as well as for the expressions of cordial greeting which you have been pleased to use in our regard.

We confess to have been sensibly affected as We beheld before Us your own Representative come upon a noble mission of peace and healing, to seek with Us ways and means of giving back to a warring works its rightful heritage of concord and the freedom to pursue in justice and tranquility its temporal and external happiness. In a moment of universal travail, when hope contends with fear in the souls of so many millions of men, We have been greatly encouraged by the vision of new possibilities of beneficient action opened up to usthrough the presence near Us of your Distinguished Representative. Since the obligations of Christian charity towards the needy and the dispossessed have ever constituted a prior claim upon Our affections and resources as they have upon those of our predecessors, it is with particular satisfaction the We welcome Your Excellency's endeavors for the alleviation of suffering. Our contemporaries follow with their heart-felt prayers, and posterity will hold in honored memory, all of those who, undeterred by immense difficulties, dedicate themselves tothe sacred task of staunching the flow of youthful blood
upon the fields of battle, and to the comforting of civilian victims despoiled and afflicted by the cruel conditions of our day. Blessed, indeed, are the peacemakers.

And although one who with discerning surveys the present international scene can have no illusions as to the magnitude of the role which has been undertaken, We are convinced that it is in the interest of all that We should go forward with Our labors to the end that the days of grievous trial be shortened, preparing and straightening the way, levelling the mountains of anger which
bar the road to understanding and filling up the valleys of distrust and suspicion which divide man from man and nation from nation. Thus may We hope that the natural law, graven by the Creator on the hearts of men, may soon, as itmust ultimately, prevail as the universal rule of human conduct over arbitrary whim and sordid interest which here and there have usurped its place, and that in consequence the rising generation may be saved from the moral illiteracy with which they are threatened. And thus, when all shall have come finally to realize that violence is futile and that hatred is a sterile force, a wearied world may rejoice in a peac builded upon the solid foundation of justice and firmly held together by the bonds of fraternal charity.

We renew to Your Excellency the expression of Our gratitude for your greeting while, in the light of happy rememberance, We pray for your continued well-being and for that of the American people.

Given at Rome, from St. Peter's, the 16th day of March, 1940, the second year of our pontificate.

PIUS P.P. XII


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1. Welles - FDR 4/6/40. 2. FDR - Hull and Welles, 4/1/40 . 3. Welles - FDR 3/30/40 4. Pope Pius XII - FDR, n.d..



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Note of Enclosure for FDR.

Document:

ENCLOSURE
TO

Letter drafted

ADDRESSED TO

The President,
the White House.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1. Hull - FDR 6/18/40. 2. FDR - Hull 5/24/40. 3. FDR - Taylor 6/18/40. 4. memo in re: US -Vatican relations. 5. Hull - Commission for Polish Relief 6/18/40. 6. Pope Pius XII - Taylor 4/16/40 ..



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Hull - FDR 6/18/40

Document:
DEPARTMENT OF STATE
WASHINGTON
June 18, 1940

My dear Mr. President:

In compliance with your memorandum of May 24, 1940, I enclose a suggested reply which Mr. Taylor may care to make to the note verbale from the Vatican, together with a covering letter to Mr. Taylor for your signature.

Faithfully yours,

Enclosures:
Letter to Mr. Taylor,
Note verbale; Copy of letter to
Commission for Polish Relief;
Note verbale from The Vatican.

The President,
The White House.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.Note of Enclosure for FDR . 2. FDR - Hull 5/24/40. 3. FDR - Taylor 6/18/40. 4. memo in re: US -Vatican relations. 5. Hull - Commission for Polish Relief 6/18/40. 6. Pope Pius XII - Taylor 4/16/40 ..



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Pope Pius XII - FDR 8/22/40

Document:
To His Excellency Franklin Delano Roosevelt, President of the United States of
America

Pius XII

Most Excellent Sir: Health and Prosperity.

The Return of the United States of Your Excellency's Personal Representative to Us, for the purpose of recruiting in the homeland the forces so generously spent in the fulfillment of his noble mission, affords Us a welcome opportunity of sending you Our cordial greetings, and of reiterating Our appreciation for the presence of your Envoy near Us. In the light of experience,
We now have further and ampler proof of the wisdom which inspired Your excellency to dispatch your representatives to Us, as we have cause to rejoice the felicity of choice which led you to entrust this important post to the Honorable Myron C. Taylor.

These first months of the mission have occasioned Us great satisfaction and, in spite of the dark forebodings of the hour. We express Our hope in a future which shall see the reestablishment of a general and enduring peace. Although the horrors of the war increase and Our sorrow deepens with every passing day, We are rebuilding Our prayers and Our endeavors to find a practi-
cable way to such a peace as will bear within it the promise of permanency, and free men from the heavy incubus of insecurity and of perpetual alarms. In our unceasing search for that peace which will be no longer, as so often in the past, a parenthesis of exhaustion between two phases of conflict, but rather, by the grace of God, a golden era of Christian concord dedicated to
the spiritual and material improvement of humanity, We feel a distinct sense of comfort in the thought that We shall not be without the powerful support of the President of the United States.

It is therefore with heartfelt good will that We again assure Your Excellency of Our prayers for your continued health and happiness and for the prosperity and progress of the American people.

Given at Rome, from St. Peter's, the 22nd day of August, 1940, the second year of Our Pontificate,

Pius XII


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: memo FDR - Taylor 9/13/40

Document:
Conf Memo to Myron Taylor from FDR---September l3, 1940
Asks for his thought on enclosed letter to FDR from Paul Appleby, Acting Sec of Agriculture, re Wallaces discussion with the President concerning relation of present regime in France to various religius groups in other countries--attaches additional information which tells of previous activities of new French Amb to U. S.--M. Henry Haye who was closely affiliated with Mr. Hitler's
agent, Abetz. Mr. Taylors reply of Sept 18, 1940 attached.

See :Wallace-Drawer 1-1940


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR - Pope Pius XII 10/1/40.

Document:
Your Holiness:-

Upon his return to the United States, Mr. Myron C. Taylor duly delivered to me your message of August twenty-secoond and I am deeply gratfied by Your Holiness' expression of satisfaction concerning Mr. Taylor's mission.

Particular note has been taken of the assurance of Your Holiness' continuing efforts to find the way to a peace which bears promise not only of permanency, but also of freedom from perpetual alarm and opportunity for the spiritual and material improvement of humanity. It seems imperative that this search shall not be abandoned, no matter how deep may be the shadow of
the present strife. It is equally necessary to realize that peace as Your Holiness conceives it must be based upon the reestablishment of Christian law and doctrine as the guiding principles which govern the relations of free men and free nations. The spiritual freedom and political independence which alone make possible this rebuilding of the structure of peace thus
become a necessary part of our common goal. In the search of it, the Government and people of the united States are glad to lend their sympathy and toevate their efforts.

May I assure Your Holiness of my profound appreciation of the reception accorded to Mr. Taylor and of your message of good will.

May I also take this occasion to send to Your Holiness my very deep personal good wishes and to express my hope and wish for your continued good health. The whole world needs you in its search for peace and good will.

His Holiness
Pius XII
State of the Vatican City.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1. Hull - FDR 9/25/40. 2. draft - FDR - Pope Pius XII 10/1/40..



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Hull - FDR 9/25/40

Document:
DEPARTMENT OF STATE
WASHINGTON
September 25, 1940

My dear Mr. President:
In compliance with your request of September 16, I enclose a draft of a possible reply to the communication which you have received from Pope Pius XII, which is returned herewith.

Faithfully yours,



Enclosure:

1. Draft.
2. Communication from
Pope Plus XII.




The President,

The White House.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.FDR - Pope Pius XII 10/1/40. . 2. draft - FDR - Pope Pius XII 10/1/40..



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: draft - FDR - Pope Pius XII 10/1/40.

Document:
Your Holiness:

Upon his return to the United States, Mr. Myron C.Taylor duly delivered to me your message of August 22nd and I am deeply gratified by Your Holiness' expression of satisfaction concerning Mr. Taylor's mission.

Particular note has been taken of the assurance of Your Holiness' continuing efforts to find the way to a peace which bears promise not only of permanency, but also of freedom from perpetual alarm and opportmnlty for the spiritual and material improvement of humanity. It seems imperative that this search shall not be abandoned, no matter how deep may be the shadow of
the present strife. It is equally necessary to realize that peace as Your Holiness conceives It must be based upon the reestablishment of Christian law and doctrine as the guiding principles which govern the relations of free men and free nations. The spiritual freedom and political independence which alone make possible this rebuilding of the structure of peace thus become a necessary part of our common goal. In the search for it, the Government and people of the United States are glad to lend their sympathy and to devote their efforts.

May I assure Your Holiness of my profound appreciation of the reception accorded to Mr. Taylor and of your message of good will.

May I also take this occasion to send to Your Holiness my very deep personal good wishes and to express my hope and wish for your continued good health. The whole world needs you in its search for peace and good will.



His Holiness

Plus XII,

State of the Vatican City. .


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.FDR - Pope Pius XII 10/1/40. 2. Hull - FDR 9/25/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Pope Pius XII - FDR 12/20/40.

Document:
To His Excellency Franklin Delano Roosevelt, President of the United States of America

In being elected for a third term to the Presidency of the United
States of America, at a time of such grave moment for the life of nations, Your Excellency has received from your country a singular proof of confidence.

The Personal relations had with Your Excellency on the occasion of Our visit to the United States, when We were Cardinal Secretary of State to the late lamented Supreme Pontiff, and the gracious reception you extended to Us, put Us in the way to appreciate your generous spirit; and today, while We offer you congratulations, We pray Almighty God to guide your mind and
heart in the noble and arduous task of leading a free and vigorous people for the greater stability of universal order, justice, and peace.

A tangible proof of these generous dispositions We have had in your sending His Excellency Mr. Myron Taylor to Us, as your personal representative with rank of Ambassador Extraordinary. Special circumstances have interrrupted his presence with Us, but We like to hope that the plan for the attainment pf those high ideals you had in mind may yet be realized.

Indeed, We are not unaware of the efforts which you made to prevent the catastrophic struggle that is heaping up ruin and sorrow for a great part of the Old World; and in Our paternal solicitude for suffering humanity there is nothing We desire more ardently than to see true pece return at long last among peoples, who have been too long and too painfully stricken and afflicted:- that true peace, We mean, that will adjust all wrongs, that will recognize with well-judged equity the vital necessities of
all, and thus mark for the world a the beginning of a new era of tranquility, collaboration and progress among peoples under the longed-for reign of Christian justice and charity.

While We renew the expression of Our good wishes for you personally and for the nation over which you preside, We invoke on both an abundance of God's blesings.

Given at Rome, from the Palace of the Vatican, the twentieth day of December 1940, the second year of Our Pontificate.

Pius pp. XII


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Pope Pius XII - FDR 12/20/40 in Latin

Document:
Text file is not available. See original document.

In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: LeHand - Taylor 2/18/41

Document:
February 18, 1941

My dear Mr. Taylor:-
The President has asked
me to thank you ever so much for letting
him see that intensely interesting letter
from Count Whadimir d-Ormesson.
The President hopes very much that
you are feeling better and sends you and
Mrs. Taylor his best wishes.

Very sincerely yours,
M.A. Le Hand
PRIVATE SECRETARY

Honorable Myron C. Taylor,
Vita Serena,
South Ocean Boulevard,
Palm Beach,
Florida.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.Taylor - LeHand 2/15/41. 2. Wladimir d"Ormesson - Taylor 1/9/41.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Taylor - LeHand 2/15/41

Document:
At Vita Serena,
South Ocean Bouleveard,
Palm Beach, Florida,
February 15, 1941.

Miss Marguerite A. LeHand,
The White House, Washington.

Dear Miss LeHand:
This translation of a letter from Count Wladimir d'Ormesson, former French ambassador to the Vatican, dated Lyon, France, January 9th, recounting the condition of affairs in that country, is highly enlightening and interesting, and, I believe, of sufficient importance to be brought to the attention of the President.
I shall appreciate it if you will see that this is done; and with best
wishes, believe me,
Sicerely yours,
(signed) Myron C. Taylor


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.LeHand - Taylor 2/18/41. 2. Wladimir d"Ormesson - Taylor 1/9/41.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Wladimir d"Ormesson - Taylor 1/9/41

Document:
COPY TRANSLATION
Lyon, January 9, 1941

My dear Ambassador:
It was with great regret that I learned from the newspapers that you had to undergo another surgical operation. I hope, with all my heart, thatyou will find complete recovery this time, and I pray to God that He sustain you in these distressing times of illness. Everyone at the Vatican will certainly have regretted to hear of your further suffering.

Since six weeks I have been in France after having beensacrificed, as you probably know, by Mr. Laval on the altar of the so-called Franco-German "Collaboraton." This collaboration has only brought worse treatment, if possible, to my unfortunate country by the pitiles occupants. I am glad, however, to be again among my compatriots and to suffer with them; glad also to learn that they think the same as I. As there is no more any means of
writing or speaking openly in France what one thinks it may be that from afar you have the impression that the French people are resigned to their fate and that there are even many who wish for an accord with the Nazi. If, by chance, you should have this
impression I can assure you that it does not correspond to the real condition. It is exactly the contrary.

The way Germany is treating France, the robbery, the pillage, the razzia, increase the anti-Nazi sentiment day by day. There is even a change since I arrived. The last defenders of Mr. Laval even are edified. One really understands that there is nothing to be done, nothing to hope for from these brigands and that only their defeat can assure to Europe and to humanity the peace and the concord so earnestly desired. You cannot imagine the
pressure exercised by Germany in ever increasing force against us; life becomes really intolerable and I fear that we are going straight, and very quickly, to event horrible for our country. As I wrote to you in September France is hostage and as the difficulties of the Axis increase the dictators put pressure on
France in order to blackmail the United States. Despite this we all prefer to suffer, and to suffer still more, if, as we hope, at the end of our suffering there is liberation and restoraion of those principles without which life is not worth living.

This will suffice to tell you with what admiration and with what high
hopes we follow the magnificent actions of President Roosevelt. His re-election was the first good news we had since the sinister days of 1940. Hisradio talk was greeted in France with a veritable enthusiasm (a silent enthusiasm because, alas, we have no longer the right to say anything), but I assure you that the people congratulated one another in the streets, as the American and English radio stations gave ample resumes. Our only great hope lies in you, dear American friends, and in the ever increasing aid, more and more efective, which you are giving to the admirable British who are defending civilization and who, with God's
assistance, will save it, but we must not hide the fact that we have many dangerous and difficult months ahead. Should Germany fail to overcome British resistance by the end of this summer we shall be delivered and victory will be on our side. But as Germany knows as well as we do that it has no more than six months to win it is certain that it will make a superhuman effort to reach a decision before summer. It will depend almost entirely on the United States, on its material aid, on its political attitude, that this
dangerous passage be overcome and that the United States will go to the limit the more our moral resistance will develop, the more will events evolve in the right direction. I believe, furthermore, that England should deliver a mortal blow to Italy as soon as possible, to eliminate it from the struggle thus injecting disorder in the axis system and in the German plans. It is on the way to doing this magnificently in Lybia, but I am covinced that as long as the Italian population itself does not suffer severe air bombardments serious trouble will not take place in Italy. The Itlaians will grumble, as they have already grumbled, but they will remain passive. But I am also convinced, from all that I hear from those coming from that country, that the said population would not resist threee
weeks against the daily regime which the Germans have inflicted on the English for the past six months. There would be such panic in Italy that it would sweep aside the present regime and would ask peace of the English. In my opinion this would have inclalculable repercussions in Germany because these two gangster regimes are holding each other up. It is this that Hitler fears above all. I know that it is cruel to have this charming people suffer a bad quarter hour, which people you love as I do; but it committed a mortal sin when it followed bandit no, 2, Mussolini, and it needs to rid itself of him. We must win the war and there is, unfortunately, no means to do it without victims.

You will pardon me for taking up so much of your time but I desire to let you know the actual feelings in France, and to tell you with what hope, with what anxiety we all have our eyes turned towards the United States,with what resolution we are ready to support still the suffering provided that liberty be returned to our Fatherland. Because we have lost this liberty despite the noble efforts of Marshal Petain, whom we all venerate, but who is only the symbol of a mutilated Fatherland, a fatherland oppressed, pillaged,
muzzled, which does not want to be in slavery to Germany and which, with the help of God and the Americans, it will escape. If you could communicate this letter to the President I would have no objection to your doing so, confidentially, naturally.

With my best wishes for your rapid and complete recovery, I am, my dear Ambassador,
Cordially and Devotedly,
W. D'ORMESSON.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.LeHand - Taylor 2/18/41. 2. Taylor - LeHand 2/15/41.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Welles - FDR 3/1/41

Document:
DEPARTMENT OF STATE
WASHINGTON

March 1, 1941

My dear Mr. President:
I return herewith the letter to you from His Excellency Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, Apostilic Delgate,Washington, dated
February 15, 1941, transmitting a letter from His Holiness, Pope Pius XII, extending congratulations upon your reelection to the Presidency of the United States, together with suggested
replies for your signature, if you approve. The reply to the Pope has been prepared in typewritten form. You may prefer, however, to have it answered in the formal engrossed style in which it was received. If so, I shall haveit prepared accordingly.

Faithfully yours,
(signed) Sumner Welles

Enclosures:
letter from His
Excellency Amleto
Giovanni Cicognani
of Februaury 15;
letter from Pope
Pius XII

The President,
The White House.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.FDR - Ciognani 2/15/41. 2. FDR - Pope Pius XII, n.d. 3. Ciognani - FDR 2/15/41. 4. Pope Pius XII - FDR copy.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR - Ciognani 2/15/41

Document:
My dear Archbishop Ciciognani:

I have received your letter of February 15, 1941, with which you were kind enough to transmit the autographed letter from His Holiness, Pope Pius XII.

Would you be good enough to transmit my reply to His Holiness and at the same time to express my deep appreciation of the message from the cardinal Secretary of State?

With the assurance of my highest regard,
believe me
Yours very sincerely,

His Excellency
The Most Reverend
Amleto Giovanni Cicognani,
Archbishop of Laodicea di Frigia,
The Apostilic Delegate,
Washington.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.Welles - FDR 3/1/41. 2. FDR - Pope Pius XII, n.d. 3. Ciognani - FDR 2/15/41. 4. Pope Pius XII - FDR copy.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR - Pope Pius XII, n.d.

Document:
Your Holiness:

Your Holiness has been good enough to send me a message upon the occasion of my reelection to the Presidency of the United States of America and to recall the cordial relations I had with Your Holiness when, as Cardinal Secretary of State, you visited this country.

I take this occasion not only to express my profound appreciation of your message but to reiterate the hope that through friendly association between the seekers of light and the seekers of peace everywhere a firm basis of lasting concord between men and nations can be established throughout the world once again. Only when the principles of Christianity and the right of all peoples to live free from the threat of external aggression are
established can that peace which Your Holiness and I so ardently desire be found.

To my deep regret Mr. Myron Taylor has been obliged to interrrupt his mission in Italy but I hope that his health may soon be sufficiently restored to enable him to return to Rome.

Believe me, with the assurances of my highest regard,
Your very sicerely,

His Holiness
Pope Pius XII
Vatican City.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.Welles - FDR 3/1/41. 2. FDR - Ciognani 2/15/41. 3. Ciognani - FDR 2/15/41. 4. Pope Pius XII - FDR copy.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Ciognani - FDR 2/15/41

Document:
3339 Mass. Ave NW
Washington, D.C.
February 15, 1941.

Mr President,

I have the honor to forward herewith to Your Excellency an autograph letter of congratulations and good wishes from His Holiness, Pope Pius XII. An office copy of the document is likewise enclosed. This letter was sent to me by His Eminince, Cardinal Maglione, for transmission to Your Excellency, and I am commanded also to convey the personal good wishes of the Cardinal Secretary of State. In doing so I take the occasion to renew my own greetings and the assurance on prayers voiced recently in person to Your Excellency.

With sentiments of highest esteem, Mr. President, I remain
Yours faithfully,

A. G. Cicognani,
Apostilic Delegate.


To the President
of the United States


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.Welles - FDR 3/1/41. 2. FDR - Ciognani 2/15/41. 3. FDR - Pope Pius XII, n.d. . 4. Pope Pius XII - FDR copy.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Pope Pius XII - FDR copy

Document:
COPY
TO HIS EXCELLENCY
FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT
PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

PIUS D.D. XII

In being elected for a third term to the Presidency of the United States of America, at a time of such grave moment for the life of nations, Your Excellency has received from your country a singular proof of confidence.

The personal relations had with Your Excellency on the occasion of our visit to the United States, when we were Cardinal Secretary of State to the late lamented Supreme Pontiff, and the gracious reception you extended to us,put us in the way to appreciate your generous spirit; and today, while we offer you congratulations, we pray Almighty God to guide your mind and heart in the noble and arduous task of leading a free and vigorous people for the
greater stability of universal order, justice, and peace.

A tangible proof of these generous dispositions we have had in your sending His Excellency Mr. Myron Taylor to Us, as your personal Representative with rank of Ambassador Extraordinary. Special circumstances have interrupted his presence with us; but we like to hope that the plan for the attainment of those high ideals you had in mind may yet be realized.

Indeed, We are not unaware of the efforts which you made to prevent the catastrophic struggle that is heaping up ruin and sorrow for a great part of the Old World; and in our paternal solicitude for suffering humanity there is nothing we desire more ardently than to see true peace return at long last among peoples, who have been too long and too painfully stricken and afflicted; -that true peace, we mean, that will adjust all wrongs, that will recognize with well-judged equity the vital necessities of all, and thus mark for the world the beginning of a new era of tranquility, collaboration and progress among peoples under the longed-for reign of christian justice and charity.

While we renew the expression of Our good wishes for you personally and for the nation over which you preside, we invoke on both an abundance of God's blessings.

Given at Rome, from the Palace of the Vatican, the twentieth day of december, the second year of our Pontificate.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.Welles - FDR 3/1/41. 2. FDR - Ciognani 2/15/41. 3. FDR - Pope Pius XII, n.d. . 4. Ciognani - FDR 2/15/41..



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Pope Pius XII - FDR 3/4/41

Document:
March 4. 1941

Mr. President,

I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of Your Excellency's letter of March 3rd, forwarding a communication of the same date for transmission to His Holiness, Pope Pius XII. I shall send on this message at once, and at same time I shall voice Your Excellency's appreciation for the greetings received from His Eminence, Cardinal Maglione. I wrote that to-day is the eighth anniversary of your first inauguration as President of the United States, and I take the occasion to invoke abundance of heavenly blessiongs upon yourself and upon this great nation.

With sentiments of highest esteem, I have the honor to remain,
most faithfully yours,

A.G. Cicognani,
Apostilic delegate.

The President of the United States,
White House.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR - Hull 3/10/41

Document:
THE WHITE HOUSE
WASHINGTON
March 10, 1941
Memorandum for the Secretary of State and Under Secretary of State
To read and return.
F.D.R.

Letter from Hon. William Phillips, Embassy of the U.S.A., Rome, Italy, 2/18/41 to the President, in further reference to matter "which you asked me to take up with the Vatican", in re position, which is not mentioned. Attached is anotherletter which he has addressed to the President dated 2/17/41, in re situation in Italy.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR - Welles 4/1/41

Document:
THE WHITE HOUSE
WASHINGTON
April 1, 1941
Memorandum for Hon. Sumner Welles

Please draft an Easter message to the Pope--not necessarily for publication but to be delivered informally through Tittman.

F.D.R.

Dispatch from Rome # 415, March 27, 1941 from Phillips


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Wladimir Ormeston - Taylor 4/25/41

Document:
[translation]
7 rue Alphonse Fochier
Lyon
April 25, 1941

My dear Ambassador:

I was very happy to receive your letter of February 15th and to learn from you yourself that your health was better. I express the very sincere hope that it will get better and better and that you will no longer have to suffer those spells that are so painful. Do you intend to return to Rome? I am glad to receive news from our Vatican City friends, Id. Osborne in particular. I know that they are well, but that they are experiencing trying times, with these happenings.

Since my last letter, these happenings have, in fact, become worse. Since I have gotten into the habit of confiding in you something of my feelings and my worries, I am taking the liberty this time again of writing to you in an entirely confidential way, in order to give you some indications which may interest you, regarding our state of mind.

This state of mind, in France, is at the same time very good and very bad. Very good, because the people are more resistant than ever against the occupier, stronger than ever in their suffering (which is indeed general, for we eat little and we lack everything).
But, for that very reason, this methodical and continuous plundering of France exasperates the people, and the population is more anti-Nazi than ever. The businessmen or politicians (there are some) who reach an agreement with the Germans will pay dearly, some day, for their present attitude. They are
marked men, and the fury of the populace will turn against them when we have regained our freedom (if we ever do so!). It may be said that all France is with England in her fight for liberty. It may be said that all France is conscious of the high stakes in the game which is being played and in which our fate is at stake - but, alas, we are (partly through our own fault, for that matter) in such a position that we can do nothing. We are condemned to
impotence and, what is even worse, to silence. You may say to yourself that there is no real corresondence between the official attitude of unoccupied France (radio, press, etc.) and what the French people are really thinking - except for the unanimous respect that surrounds Marshal Petain personally.

Unfortunately, it must be said also that at this moment we are all very uneasy. Uneasy because the German victories in the Balkans and, in particular, in Cyrenaica and on the borders
of Egypy, are restoring German prestige and we are asking ourselves if England is not going to receive a terrible blow in the Mediterranean? Uneasy because we fear that this situation may affect American opinion itself. And we are wondering, in anguish, if the German victories will not discourage the United States and slow down its efforts instead of intensifying them. Uneasy, lastly,
because we are wondering, in dread, whether the present effort is great enough, whether the results expected from it will not come too late, whether, lastly, the American people will not decide to get into the war in reality until the war is lost.

I need not tell ou that the German propaganda, which acts in France as it desires, since the Germans are masters here (even in the so-called unoccupied zone), is methodically spreading news which sustains and enlivens these doubts. In the highest circles (where they are said to be convinced of Germany's total victory), doubts are likewise cast on the efficacy of American aid. I am not
speaking of the Marshal, of course, who, besides, does not tell anyone what he thinks. But I am talking of those around him, among whom, unfortunately, there are many persons who have been won over to the so-called "collaboration" policy. Among those persons, shoulders are shrugged when American aid is spoken of, and the salvation that may come to us from the United States. It is good if you are not called a drunken man or a fool. At any rate, you are called a simpleton. Despite everything, these remarks finally reach the public. There results from this are a certain uneasiness, a certain diminution in faith in American aid
and in the outcome of the conflict. Ah! If the United States were at war and said: "we will never accept a victory by the Axis. It may last for years, but let it cost what it may, we are resolved to carry on the fight to the end." Then you would see the reaction in Frace! Everyone would regain courage and would make life hard for the Germans. If only arms could reach us, you would see what the French would do with them this time! For they have finally come
to understand that their life is at stake. But there is too much feeling in France (I am speaking to you frankly) that the Americans are not keeping up with events, that they do not understand their gravity, that they are not producing enough, are not working eough, that there are too many strikes, too many "5th columns" which are manipulating them inside the country. There is too much feeling that time is being lost in parliamentary procedure, in deciding on such or such a measure, no matter how urgent and indispensable; too much feeling that men will never be sent to fight, to keep a wave of discouragement from coming to weaken us
and plunge us into a decline.

As to myself, I am convinced that Hitler is going to accomplish the
impossible in order to assure himself mastery of the Mediterranean as soon as possible. He is going to throw armored divisions against Egypt, the Suez Canal and the Red Sea. He is undoubtedly going to occupy Lisbon also and cross to
the other side of the strait of Gibraltar, to hold the Strait at his mercy. And when he has become master of all Europe, he will turn toward you Americans and say to you: "I am leaving Great Britain her empire freely; I am only taking from her the Mediterranean islands that did not belong to her. Let me organize
Europe as I see fit and let us make peace." And then what will you say? That is the maneuver that is planned.

Now I have no need to tell you what a Europe "organized" by Nazi Germany would be! One vast Slovakia! We should all be reduced to military, economic, financial and intellectual slavery. No more liberty! No longer any independence of mind. The life that we are leading is already a hellish one. It will become stabilized. And you will feel the result, even in America. Everything will be brought into the exclusive service of Germany. One of my friends, who is a swiss and a banker and for that reason frequently comes in contact with German businieesmen, told me just yesterday that it was striking to see how those famous "european benefits" consisted, as soon as they could be gotten to talking, always in assuring here, there, and in everything, German domination pure and simple. Already, in France, they are
assuring control of all matters, both industrial and intellectual. That is a tidal wave, a scourge such as the world has never seen yet! And for that very reason, what disturbs me is that the American people, despite the far-seeing and wonderful warnings of President Roosevelt and his collaborators, does not seem to have realized yet the true reach, the extent of the gravity of this
scourge. The United States went to war in 1917 to aid the allies to escape the victory and the hegemony of William II. But the Germany of William II was a dream in comparison with that of the Nazis! We could have lived in Europe with the victory of that Germany, however detestable it was. We shall not be able to live in Europe under the domination of the abominable gangsters in brown shirts. I understand Count Teleki! I assure you that all Europe will count as Teleki did! It is horrible to have young children and to say to oneself that they are perhaps called to lve under the boot of those brutes! It would have been better not to beget them. So I have difficulty in understanding, I must confess, how the United States, which went into the 1917 war from such honorable motives, should still hesitate to make its maximum
effort in this war, since the motives of 25 years ago are, so to speak, nothing in comparison with those of today! I assure you that it is not an idle phrase to say that civilization is at stake. France herself does not count in this disaster; the disaster far exceeds the case of France.

I know that I am preaching to a converted person. But I should like, however, for you to know what anguish there is in me, in us, in forty million French people, in three hundred million Europeans and Christians!

Believe me, it is a question of life and death for all of us and, in view of this unprecedented drama, the United States bears the supreme responsibility.

For everything depends on you, from this time forward. Unfortunate England can no longet win the war alone; she can no longer even continue the struggle alone. Besides, she made a grave error in not settling matters with Italy last winter. As I wrote to you at the time, morale was so low in Italy that if the English had treated the population harshly, bombing their cities, they could
have, I believe, produced serious disturbances in Italy. But they are too much "gentlemen." They let the moment slip by. They were wrong also in not going as far as Tripoli. In short, at the present time, Mussolini's stock has risen. England is going to have a terrible part to play from now on. And what if she should get discouraged too? You alone can maintain all the world
in resistance, material or moral, by casting into the balance the decisive weight of your force. If you go to war, then victory cannot go to Germany. Everyone knows that. The reactions will be immediate. The will to continue the fight will be increased tenfold. All the birds of ill men, all the direct or indirect agents of Germany will be reduced to silence. While if the opposite takes place -

The Germans have won everything so far, in Poland, in Norway, in Holland, in Belgium, in France, in Serbia, in Greece, in Cyrenaica, by the same means: tanks and airplanes in liason. They have found the weapon for this war. They manufactured it in quantities. They know how to make use of it. By it they have conquered Europe. The sole means of making them disgorge is to have more and larger tanks than theirs, more and deadlier airplanes than theirs. As soon as that superiority in mechanism is acquired, the means for victory will be forged! Besides, such equipment will have to be able to reach this continent and there must be mechanically trained men to operate it. Besides, England
must, above all else, hold out until then.

Well, in my opinion, England will hold out, and we shall all hold out, and it will be possible to find bases for the arrival of this saving equipment, if you take such a position now that no doubt can be held any longer as to your determination to lead the fight for the liberation of Europe.

But I believe, in all frankness, that you can delay no longer in taking that position. That is what I wanted to tell you in full frankness. Excuse me for having spoken with such ardor such sincerity - and, in particular, in such length! But under the circumstances in which we are, frankness is necessary. You must
know what we think. Our ideal of life is the same; like others, we love liberty, independence and sound democracy. It is because we are all of us in peril of death that we turn to us not only as to friends, but as to coreligionists.

I shall not see any imporopriety, but just the opposite, in your showing this letter to the President and those of our political friends who might be interested, preserving, of course, its strictly confidential character. Ihave to you in full confidence.

Please believe me, my dear Ambassador, the expression of my most cordially devoted sentiments.

Wladimir J. Ormeston

Please give my best regards to Angel Algars, if you see him.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Ormeston - Taylor 5/1/41

Document:
7 Rue Alphonse Fochier
Lyon, May 1 1941

My dear Ambassador:

I wrote to you about ten days ago and here I am again abusing your patience! You will please pardon me. But I wish to send you by a sure means an article which I have published in the "Revue des Deux Mondes" on the Holy See and the Peace" which may be of interest to you. I have not signed the article out of courtesy to the Holy Father and writing anonymously permits me to say a certain number of things which I could not otherwise express in view of the official mission I had there. But I believe it to be of use to call the attention of the general public (using the discretion necessary) to the violations committed by Italy in regard to the Lateran Accord and to the absolutely paradoxical situation in Rome of the religious establishments of the belligerent countries
sequestered by Italy. Perhaps it will be possible for you to bring this article to the attention of some American magazine or newspaper which would be interested in these Vatican questions. You will see, on the other hand, that I have used all my efforts to assemble the various statements of Pope Pius XII regarding the war and the future peace and there is gathered therefrom a
very strong and very clear doctrine which should be brought to light.

Since my last letter the currents of which I spoke to you have been
accentuated. It is plain that German propaganda is endeavoring, with an infernal art, to exploit the recent successes of the Axis in Yugoslavia, Greece, and Cyrensica to impress public opinion, to make make it believe that the game is already over; that there is no further chance for England to win the war and that the simplest and best policy is to resign one's self immediately to the complete triumph of Germany! Unfortunately, a certain number of people are
shaken and, although deploring it, consider that this submission is, perhaps, the right thing. They are manipulated by the knaves which Germany keeps among us who are, alas, numerous and very well supplied with tools. However, those who allow themselves to be swayed by the German success and the Nazi propaganda are but a infinite minority of the country; the immense majority of the French people maintain all their faith, as they maintain all their energy, but this time, I repeat, it reposes solely in the United States.

Everyone says: "If the United States enters the war then everything becomes possible again, even certain. But if the United States does not make the necessary effort - that is to say, all the effort necessary - then England, alone, will end by succumbing and we shall be lost with her." It is therefore on you, definitively, that the fate of Europe and of the world depends. I
affirm to you that the day on which France is convinced that there is no doubt concerning your will to win the situation, even here, will be reversed.

At this time I bring to your attention that the propaganda against America is being carried on with great frenzy and makes use of every means among them that of trying to convince the people that despite the admirable declarations of President Roosevelt, despite those of Mr. Hull, despite the naval measures taken, the American business and industrial centers are very gloomy about the situation, they consider that all is lost for England and they endeavor to restrain the President and to oppose his actions. This is what certain people are saying in Paris and Vichny, stating that they are very well informed and in touch with the United States. They are doing a lot of harm here and have very bad influence on important people. I am telling you this for whatever
good use can be made of it.

The following is characteristic of the state of opinion here vis-a-vis
the United States: Some days ago the "Gazette de Lausanne" published a dispatch stating that Washington was preoccupied with the situation in North Africa where the Germans are filtering in more and more every day and that a "courtesy visit" of the American fleet to Casablanca was envisaged. Well, the day after this article, which caused a sensation, appeared the people were saying: "what a pity it is only a dispatch, a project, and not already the real thing." If it had been learned that one of your squadrons was anchored in the port of Casablanca the people would have danced with joy because the significance of this move
would have been understood.

We are entering the crux of the drama. Life here becomes more painful each day, and German pressure more rigorous. The last vestiges of independence which existed in the free zone are about to disappear. It is seen every day in the radio, in the press, which is abominable, and which is the despair of everyone.

I assure you that this sinking into Nazi slavery is something abominable, the fate which awaits all Europe. This is why 300,000,000 Christians cry, with all their energy, S.O.S. to the Americans.

Yours most sincerely devoted,
W. d'Ormesson.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR - Hull 5/24/40

Document:
MEMORANDUM FOR
. THE SECRETARY OF STATE
To prepare reply.

F. D. R.

Enclosures fdr/tmb

Letter from Hon. Myron C. Taylor, Rome, 4/26/40 to the President, with attached Note Verbale, 4/26/40, handed to Mr. Taylor by the Cardinal Secretary of State, regarding the unsuccessful efforts that the Holy See has been making to send relief to Poland.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.Note of Enclosure for FDR . 2. Hull - FDR 6/18/40. 3. FDR - Taylor 6/18/40. 4. memo in re: US -Vatican relations. 5. Hull - Commission for Polish Relief 6/18/40. 6. Pope Pius XII - Taylor 4/16/40 ..



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Welles - FDR 5/16/39

Document:

ADDRESS OFFICIAL COMMUNICATIONS TO
THE SECRETARY OF STATE
WASHINGTON, D.C.
DEPARTMENT OF STATE
WASHINGTON
MAY 16, 1939

My dear Mr. President:
Father Carroll, the Assistant to Monsignor Ready who is at the moment out of Washington, called to see me this morning at the request of teh Apostolic Delegate. The Delegate had yesterday recieved a telegram from the Papal Secretary with a request that its contents be communicated to this Government.

The message was as follows:

The Pope desired you to know that because of his belief that the peace of Europe was gravely endangered, he had on May 3 approached the governments of Great Britain, France, Poland, Germany, and Italy and had inquired of them whether they believed the peace of Europe to be in imminent danger, and second, whether those governments believed a peace conference to be attended by the representatives of the five powers mentioned to settle outstanding problems would be feasible. The Vatican had been informed as a result of the approaches made that none of the five governments believed the situation to be precarious and that the general impression was that a conference of the type proposed would not at that time be expedient.

In conclusion, the Apostolic Delegate was instructed to let you know that if later on such a conference appeared to be expedient, the Pope would communicate with you before any final steps were taken.

I asked Father Carroll to tell the Delegate that I deeply appreciated the message recieved and that I would immediately communicate its contents to you.

Believe me,
Faithfully yours,

/s/ Sumner Wells


The President,
The White House.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Celler - FDR 8/2/39.

Document:
DEPARTMENT OF STATE
WASHINGTON
August 2, 1939

My dear Mr. President:

I enclose a copy of a long letter from Representative Celler urging the establishment by this Government of diplomatic relations with the Holy See. I have acknowledged teh reciept of this letter but did not indicate that I was sending you a copy.
Faithfully yours,
/s/ Sumner Wells



Enclosure:

Copy of letter from
Representative Celler.

The President,
The White House.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
Taylor - Hull 7/24/39.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Taylor - Hull 7/24/39

Document:
CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
WASHINGTON, D. C.

July 24, 1939.

Hon. Cordell Hull,
Secretary of State,
Washington, D.C.

My dear Mr. Secretary:

At the Coronation Ceremonies of Pope Pius XII, there was present as a representative of President Roosevelt, our present Ambassador to England, the Honorable Joseph P. Kennedy. Mr. Kennedy's presence served to emphasize the very friendly relations that have always existed between our Government and the Papal See.

An examination of the records will reveal that diplomatic relations with the Holy See were first established on December 15, 1784, when the Papal Nuncio at Paris wrote to the American Commissioners that his Government had agreed to open the ports of Civita Vecchia on the Mediterranean, and Ancona on the Adriatic, to American vessels.

On June 26, 1797, John Baptist Sartori of Rome was commissioned as the first Consul to represent the United States in the Papal Dominions.

The diplomatic relations thus established between our country and the Papal States were maintained for nearly three three quarterss of a century in a spirit of a mutual friendship and respect. In 1867, the American mission to Rome came to an official end, but through no fault or action of the Holy See. Congress simply refused to continue the appropriation for the American mission. There was question as whether or not then Pope Pius had recognized the Confederacy. Congress had
merely refused to continue the necessary appropriation, so that as Secretary of State Seward stated, "Legally, the action of congress left the mission still exixting, but without compensation".
In my opinion, the action of our government was somewhat hasty and ill-advised, was an ungenerous return for the good-will of the Papal See had always manifested towards our government and our people. I Believe the time has now come when these diplomatic relations, thus groundlessly severed, should be restored. That restoration would be a clarion call to the civilized peoples of the world that religious and personal liberties are inherent in our democracy. In this connenction
I quote the interesting language used by Mr. Chief Justice Fuller in the opinion of hte Municipality of Ponce v. Roman Catholic Apostolic church in Porto Rico, decided June 1, 1908: "The corporate existence of the Roman Catholic Church, as well as the position occupied by the papacy, has always been recognized by the Government of the united States.

"At one time the United States maintained diplomatic relations with the Papal States, which continued up to the time of the loss of the temporal power of the papacy.
(Moore's Digest of Int. Law, vol. l, pp.130, 131)

"The Holy See still occupies a recognized position in international law, of which the courts must take Judicial notice.

"The Pope, though deprived of the territorial dominion which he formerly enjoyed, holds, as sovereign pontiff and head of the Roman Catholic Church, an exceptional position.
Though, in default of territory, he is not a temporal sovereign, he is in many respects treated as such. He has the right of active and passive legation, and his envoys of the first class, his apostolic nuncios, are specially privileged . .. '" (1 Moore' s Dig. 39)

Furthermore, practlcally all countries-send their diplomatic representatives to the Court of the Supreme Pontiff and diplomatic representatives of the Holy See are received with the respect
and consideration customarily accorded to diplomatic agents.

A representative of our country residing at the Holy See would do much to bring to the fore the fact that in our country we respect to the full the rights of religious freedom, as we do also
those accompanying precious rights of freedom of the press, freedom of speech and freedom of assemblage.' A reinstatement of relations with the Holy See would dramatically serve to recall to the world that intolerance and religious hatred and bigotry cannot flourish here. It would enkindle in our
own hearts sympathy for the thousands of unfortunates who have been castigated, tortured and ruined because of a dictator's insane hate and venom. Events abroad indicate in no uncertain terms the great stake which religion must play in the
preservation of democracy against the savage and merciless inroads of Fascism, Naziism and Communism. These ideologies exclude the virtues of Christianity- faith, hope and charity,
benevolence and brotherly love- those virtues which are the very basis of our moral code.

The unbroken tradition of the Holy see with respect
to international peace has been worthily continued to the present by the lamented supreme Pontiff Pius XI, who, in his allocution on peace in 1930, condemned in strongest terms "hard and selfish
nationalism" and to the hour of his death courageously stood firm against every policy that threatened peace by undermining the principles of Justice and charity in relations among
nations. The present Supreme Pontiff Pius XII, in the brief space that has elapsed since his elevation to the highest office in the Catholic Church, already has given eloquent evidence of his purpose to labor for peace among nations based on Justice and charity. History discloses that democracies value the church and religion; that dictatorships ridicule the church and despise religion. Democracies protect the church, dictatorships destroy it. Thus, our Democracy has always set a high. value on religion and on the church.

The Papacy has always placed a high value on Justice
and charity in relations among men and among nations. The first Popes, for example, said nothing about anti-semitism since they themselves, like their Master Christ, were Jews and subject to all the inJustices heaped upon Jews. As early as the sixth century- in the year ,538 - Pope Gregory the Great wrote: "We forbid you to molest the Jews or to lay upon them restrictions not imposed by the established laws; we further permit them to live as Romans and to dispose of their property as they will."
Heinrich Graetz, Jewish Historian and author of a monumental work, "History of the Jews", writes: "It is remarkable that the Bishops of Rome, the recognized champions of Christianity,
treated the Jews with the utmost toleration and liberality. The occupants of the Papal throne shielded the Jews and exhorted the clergy and the princes against the use of force in converting them to Christianity."

Pope Pius XI declared on July 30, 1938, referring to the unscientific racial theories of Naziism: "It is forgotten that humankind, the whole of humankind, is a single, great universal human race. All men are, above all, members of the same great kind. They all belong to the single great family of the living.

Humankind is, therefore, a single universal race."Nazi terror directed the storming of the homes of Cardinals Innitzer and Faulhaber. The Catholic priesthood is held up to ridicule and scorn and shame. Hundreds of Protestant Clergymen of the Confessional church have been arrested, and Pastor Niemoeller still languishes in a Nazi cell!

I believe the nation generally would welcome your course and understanding in this matter of re-establishing diplomatic relations with the Holy See. A pronouncement to this effect would scatter the termites of bigotry and rodents of irreligion the world over. No sincere citizen of the United States, familiar with the history of his country and its relations with the Holy See, can reasonably object to the re-establishment of diplomatic relations between the government of the United States and the Holy See.

Lastly, there has ascended to the Papal Throne, Pope Pius XII, a religious man of great erudition, wisdom and tolerance. As Anne O'Hara McCormick of the New York Times has written: "He is a spiritual plenipotentiary of great influence, though he has none but moral weapons to impress a world at arms ."

For several, months, Pope Pius XII has been endeavoring to bring peace to a war-threatened world. He has given instructions to his Papal Nuncios who are accredited to the various capitals of the world to invite the interested governments to consider peacefully and in true religious amity and accord, solutions of the grave issues, confronting the various nations, which are disturbing the world. Let us help him in his glorious mission of Peace by sending our delegate to him.

Pope Pius XII has expressed great admiration and affection for the people of the United States. He has extended his hand of fellowship to us. We should grasp it. We should re-establish diplomatic relations with the Holy See

With assurances of high esteem, I am

Cordially yours,

EMANUEL CELLER


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
Celler - FDR 8/2/39.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR - Welles 8/6/39.

Document:
The White House
WAsHINGTON

August 6, 1939

Memorandum for
The Undersecretary of State

Will you speak to me about this?

F.D.R.

Letter from Undersecretary Welles
to the President, dated August l,
enclosin copy of letter from
Ambassador Phillips to Secretary
Welles in re advantage which might
be gained by this Government If
we had direct diplomatic relations
with the Vatican.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
see attachment Welles - FDR 8/1/39.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Welles - FDR 8/1/39

Document:

DEPARTMENT OF STATE

WASHINGTON

August, 1 1939

My dear Mr. President


Some weeks ago the Secretary and I were speaking of
the advantage which might be gained by this Government if we had direct dilplomatic relations with the Vatican. I think it is unquestionable that the Vatican has many
sources of information, particularly with regard to what
is actually going on in Germany, Italy, and Spain, which
we do not possess, and it seemed to us that the question
of whether it would be desirable for our Government to
obtain access to this information was of considerable importance.

At Mr. Hull's suggestion I wrote a personal letter
to Bill Phillips asking his opinion. I have this morning
received Bill' s reply under date of July 19 and I am sending you a copy of his letter for your information.

Believe me

Faithfully yours
{Sumner Wells}
Enclosure:
From Ambassador Phlllips ,

July 19, 1939.
The President,
The White House.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
see attachmentFDR - Welles 8/6/39.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Hull - FDR 10/20/39

Document:
October 20 1939

My dear Mr. President:

I enclose a copy of a cablegram which was received on October 10 by the Aposolic Delegate in Washington from the Secretariate of State of the Holy See, a copy of which was left with an officer of the department by Monsignor Ready, in regard to information recieved by the Secretariate of State from an unnamed source that Chinese officials "desire the Holy See to take steps to establish peace between China and Japan". I enclose also a memorandum of October 12 in analysis of the message from the Secretariate of State and in comment upon the general question of possible mediation on the part of this Government between Japan and China.

I am in general agreement with the statements and the conclusions expressed in the memorandum, which I venture to hope you will find time to read.

By way of acknowledgment of the copy of the cable-gram to the Apostolic Delegate which was left with us, I propose, subject to your approval, to ask Monsignor Ready to call and to inform him that the spirit which prompted the Secretariats of State of the Holy See to bring to the attention of this Government the informa-
tion contained in the Secretariats of states cablegram
is very much appreciated that the communication has
been brought to your attention; and that it is our con-
stant desire to make such contribution as may seem ap-
propriate and be practicable toward the cause of peace among nations.
Faithfully yours,

Cordell Hull

enclosures:
1. Cablegram from the Secretariate of State.
2. Memorandum of October 12.

The President,
the White House


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Proposed Statement by Spellman 12/24/39

Document:
{Proposed Statement by Archbishop Spellman, Dec. 24, 1939}

As an American, living and working and willing to die for the welfare of my country and my countrymen, all of them, I am very happy that President Roosevelt has harmonized the voice of Pope Pius XII with his own clarion call for peace among nations and peoples. It is opportune that, on the vigil of the anniversary of the birth of Prince of Peace, the President of the United States, should take this action for peace. President Roosevelt is our leader, the leader of a free people determined on peace for ourselves, desirous of peace for others. We are a people who believe in, who practice and defend freedom of religion, freedom in the dissemination of truth, freedom of assembly, freedom of trade. It is timely that our president, intrepid enunciator of these principles and champion of them, should join with other forces for peace, for charitable and humanitarian influences. Such an
influence is the Catholic Church. As an American, I rejoice in this action of President Roosevelt.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Note Attached to Pope Pius XII - FDR 1/7/40

Document:
The President had the original
of this letter framed. It was
written in script and signed
by the Pope.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Pope Pius XII - FDR 1/7/40.

Document:
To his Excellency
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
President of the United States of America

Pius PP. XII

Most Excellent Sir:
Health and Prosperity.

The memorable message that your Excellency was pleased to have forwarded to Us on the eve of the Holy Feast of Christmas has brightened with a ray of consolation, of hope and confidence, the suffering, the heart-rending fear and the bitterness of the peoples caught up in the vortex of war. For this all right-minded men have paid you spontaneous tribute to their sincere gratitude. We have been deeply moved by the moble thought contained
in your note, in which the spirt of christmas and the desire to see it applied to the great human problems have found such eloquent expression; and fully persuaded it to the distinguished
gathering present that very morning in the Consistorial Hall of this Apostolic Vatican Palce, solemnly expressing before the world, Catholic and non-catholic alike, our appreciation of this
courageous document, inspired by a far-seeing statesmanship and a profound human sympathy.

We have been particularly impressed by one characteristic feature of Your Excellency's message: the vital, spiritual contact with the thoughts and feelings, the hopes and the aspirations of
the masses of the people, of those classes, namely, on whom more than others, and in a measure never felt before, weighs the burden of sorrow and sacrifice imposed by the present restless
and tempestuous hour. Also for this reason, none perhaps better than We can understand the meaning, the revealing power and the warmth of feeling manifest in this act of your Excellency.
In fact Our own daily Experience tells Us of the deep-seated yearning for peace that fills the hearts of the common people. In the measure that the war with its direct and indirect repercussions spreads; and the more economic, social and family life is forcibly wrenched from its normal bases by the continuation of the war, and is forced along the way of sacrifice and every kind of privation, the bitter need of which is not always plain to all; so much more intense is the longing for peace that pervades the hearts of men and their determination to find and to apply the means that lead to peace . When that day dawns- and We would like to hope that it is not too far distant-on which the roar of battle will lapse into silence and there will arise the possibility of establishing a true
and sound peace dictated by the principles of justice and equity, only he will be able to discern the path that should be followed who unites with high political power a clear understanding
of the voice of humanity along with a sincere reverence for the divine precepts of life as found in hte Gospel of Christ. only men of such moral stature will be able to create the peace, that will compensate for the incalculable sacrifices of this war and clear the way for a comity of nations,fair to all, efficacious and sustained by mutual confidence.

We are fully aware of how stubborn the obstacles are that stand in the way of attaining this goal, and how they become daily more difficult to surmount. And if the friends of peace do not wish their labors to be in vain, they should visualize distinctly the seriousness of these obstacles, and the consequently
slight probability of immediate success so long as the present state of the opposing forces remains essentially unchanged.

As Vicar on earth of the Prince of Peace, from the first days of Our
Pontificate We have dedicated Our efforts and Our solicitude to the purpose of maintaining peace, and afterwards of reestablishing it. Heedless of momentary lack of success and of the difficulties involved, We are continuing to follow
along the path marked out for Us by Our Apostolic mission. As We walk this path, often rough and thorny, the echo which reaches Us from countless souls, both within and outside the Church, together with the consciousness of duty done, is for Us abundant and consoling reward.

And now that in this hour of world-wide pain and misgiving the Chief Magistrate of the great North American Federation, under the spell of the Holy Night of Christmas, should have taken such a prominent place in the vanguard of these who would promote
peace and generously succor the victims of the war, bespeaks a providential help, which We acknowledge with grateful Joy and increased confidence. It is any exemplary act of fraternal and hearty solidarity between the New and the Old World in
defence against the chilling breath of aggressive and deadly godless and anti-christian tendencies, that threaten to dry up, the fountainhead, whence civilization has come and drawn its strength.

In such circumstances We shall find a special satisfaction, as We have already informed Your Excellency, in receiving with all the honor due to his well-known qualifications and to the dignity of his important mission, the representative who is to be sent to Us as the faithful interpreter of your mind regarding the procuring of peace and the alleviation of sufferings consequent upon the war.

Recalling with keen Joy the pleasang memories left Us after Our unforgettable visit to your great nation, and living over again the sincere pleasure that personal acquaintance with Your Excellency brought Us, We express in turn Our hearty good wishes a most fervent prayer for the prosperity of Your Excellency and of all the people of the United States.

Given at Rome, at St. Peter's, the 7th day of January 1940,the first Year of Our Pontificate.

P I U S .P P. X I I


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
See note attached to Pope Pius XII - FDR 1/7/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Taylor - FDR 2/1/40.

Document:
DEPARTMENT OF STATE
WASHINGTON

February 1, 1940

My dear Mr. President:

When Mr. Myron Taylor was here he reminded the Department that he had received no written letter of appointment from you and therefore I am enclosing a possible draft of such a letter for your signature if you approve

Faithfully yours,


Enclosure:
To Mr. Myron Taylor.



The President,
The White House.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1. FDR - Taylor, not sent. 2. FDR - Taylor 1/30/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR - Taylor, not sent.

Document:
{not Sent}


My dear Mr. Taylor;

Reposing special faith and confidence in you I am asking you to procees at your early convenience to Italy, there to act as my personal representative to His Holiness, Pope Pius XII. My purpose in entrusting you with this mission was set forth in my letter of December 23, 1939 to the Pope, a copy which is enclosed. I am also asking you personally to convey a further communication to His Holiness.

I may from time to time request you to serve as the channel of communication for any views I may wish to exchange to the Pope. You will, of course, communicate to this Government any matters
which may come to your attention in the performance of your mission which you may feel will serve the best interest of the United States.

With all best wishes for the success of your mission, I am,
Very sincerely yours,

Enclosure:
As stated.


THe Honorable
Myron C. Taylor
71 Broadway
New York, New York


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.Taylor - FDR 2/1/40 2. FDR - Taylor 1/30/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR - Taylor 1/30/40

Document:
My dear Mr. Taylor:

Reposing special faith and confidence in you I am asking you to proceed at your early convenience to Italy, there to act as my personal representative to His Holiness Pope Pius XII. My purpose in entrusting you with this mission was set forth in my letter of December 23, 1939 to the Pope, a copy which is enclosed. I am also asking you personally to convay a further communication to
His Holiness.

I may from time to time request you to serve as the channel of communication for any views I may wish to exchange with the Pope. You will, of course, communicate to this Government
any matters which may come to your attenion in the performance of your mission which you may feel will serve the best interest of the United States.

With all best wishes for the success of your mission, I am,
Very sincerely yours,


Enclosure:
As Stated.


The Honorable
Myron C. Taylor
71 Broadway,
New York, New York

EU:SR:LG 1-30-40 A-M A-B U


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.Taylor - FDR 2/1/40 2. FDR - Taylor, not sent.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR - Taylor 2/4/40.

Document:

{sent Feb. 4, 1940}

My Dear Mr. Taylor:

Reposing special faith and confidence in you I am asking you to proceed at your early convenience to Italy, there to act as my personal representative, with the rank of ambassador, to His
Holiness, Pope Pius XII. My purpose in entrusting you wiht this mission was set forth in my letter of December 23, 1939 to the Pope, a copy of which is enclosed. I am also asking you
personally to convay a further communication to His Holiness.
I may from time to time request you to serve as the channel of communication for any matters which may come to your attention in the performance of your mission which may come to your
attention in the performance of your mission which you may feel will serve the best interest of the United States.

With all best wishes for the success of your mission, I am,
Very sincerely yours,


Enclosure:
As states.


The Honorable
Myron C. Taylor,
71 Broadway,
New York, New York.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1. Spruks - State Dept. 2. FDR - Taylor, not sent. 3. S. Woodward - Watson 2/10/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Spruks - State Dept.

Document:
DEPARTMENT OF STATE
DIVISION OF PROTOCOL
I called Havens in FA to see who drafted the letter. FA knows nothing about it.

I then called Mr. Serle who stated he had handled most of this matter but did not draft the letter. He said he would call Gen. Watson. I told him that I would ask you to get the letter so it can be changed.
Spruks


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1. Taylor - FDR 2/4/40. 2. FDR - Taylor, not sent. 3. S. Woodward - Watson 2/10/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR - Taylor, not sent

Document:
THE WHITE HOUSE
WASHINGTON
not sent- see: attached letter to Taylor of Feb-4-194? which was sent (handwritten)

My dear Mr. Taylor:

Reposing special faith and confidence in you I am asking you to proceed at your early convenience to Italy, there to act as my personal representative to His Holiness, Pope Pius XII. My purpose in entrusting you with this mission was set forth in my letter of December 23, 1939 to the Pope, a copy of which is
enclosed. I am also asking you personally to convey a further communication to His Holiness.

I may from time to time request you to serve as the channel of communication for any views I may wish to exchange with the Pope. you will, of course, communicate to this Government any matters which may come to your attention in the performance of your mission which you may feel will serve the best interest
of the United States.

With all best wishes for the success of your mission, I am,

Very Sincerely yours,

Enclosure:
As stated.

The Honorable
Myron C. Taylor,
71 Broadway,
New York, New York.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1. Taylor - FDR 2/4/40. 2. Spruks - State Dept. 3. S. Woodward - Watson 2/10/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: S. Woodward - Watson 2/10/40

Document:

DEPARTMENT OF STATE
division of protocol


February 10, 1940

General Watson:

In the original draft of this letter to Mr. Myron C. Taylor, the words
"with the rank of ambassador" did not appear. At Mr. Taylor's request they have been inserted in a new draft, and if the President will sign it, I shall see that Mr. Taylor gets it before he sails. The drafts are otherwise identical.

/s/stanley woodward
Stanley Woodward,
Acting Chief of Protocol.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1. Taylor - FDR 2/4/40. 2. Spruks - State Dept. 3. Taylor - FDR 2/4/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: SR - Welles, n.d.

Document:
(handwritten)

S W:

I left this memo at
Mr Welle's office. Mrs.
Clarkson gave it back to
me saying with regard to
the last paragraph that
Mr Welles had said
"by all means."
S.R.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
State Dept. 2/9/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: State Dept. 2/9/40

Document:
DEPARTMENT OF STATE DIVISION OF EUROPEAN AFFAIRS

February 9, 1940


Mr. Myron Taylor telephoned this morning to say that the President had showed him yesterday the letter of appointment which was to be signed by the President and sent to Mr. Taylor. Mr. Taylor said that the letter made no mention of his status as Ambassador. He attached considerable importance to the mention of this, and
hoped that it could be inserted.

The letter is now in the hands of the President. Would you authorize the Protocol Division to communicate Mr. Taylor's wishes to the White House.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
SR - Welles, n.d..



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Hull - FDR 2/7/40.

Document:
DEPARTMENT OF STATE
THE SECRETARY
February 7, 1940

Draft of letter for the President
to write to the Pope in longhand
for delivery by Mr. Myron Taylor.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1. FDR - Pope Pius XII, 2/14/40. 2. FDR - Pope Pius XII, 2/14/40. 3. draft - FDR - Pope Pius XII, 2/14/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR - Pope Pius XII, 2/14/40

Document:
COPY OF LONGHAND LETTER
THE WHITE HOUSE
WASHINGTON
Feb 14th 1940

Your Holiness:-

In my letter of December 23, 1939 I had the honor to suggest that it would give me great satisfaction to send to you my own representative in order that out parallel endeavors for peace and the alleviation of suffering might be assisted. Your Holiness was good enough to reply that the choice of Mr. Myron C. Taylor as my representative was acceptable and that you would receive him.

I am entrusting this special mission to Mr. Taylor who is a very old friend of mine, and in whom I repose the utmost confidence.

His humanitarian efforts in behalf of those whom poltical disruption has rendered homeless are well known to Your Holiness. I shall be happy to feel that he may be the channel of communication for any views you and I may wish to exchange in the interest of concord among the peoples of the world.

I am asking Mr. Taylor to convey my cordial greetings to you, my old and good friend, and my sicere hope that the common ideals of religion and of humanity itself can have united expression for the reestablishment of a more permanent peace on the foundations of freedom, and an assurance of life and integrity of all nations under God.
Cordially your friend,
Franklin D. Roosevelt


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1. Hull - FDR 2/7/40. . 2. draft - FDR - Pope Pius XII, 2/14/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: draft - FDR - Pope Pius XII, 2/14/40

Document:
Your Holiness:

In my letter of December 23, 1939 I had the honor to suggest to Your Holiness that it would give me great satisfaction to send to You my own representative in order that our parallel endeavors for peace and the alleviation of suffering might be assisted. Your Holiness was good enough to reply that the choice of the honorable Myron C. Taylor as my representative was acceptable
and that You would receive him.

I am entrusting this special mission to Mr. Taylor,in whom I repose the utmost confidence. His humanitarian effort on behalf of those whom political disruption have rendered homeless are doubtless already known to Your Holiness. I shall be happy to feel that my representative may be the channel of communication for any views we may wish to exchange in the interest of the restoration of
concord among the peoples of the world.

I am asking Mr. Taylor to convey my cordial greetings and my sincere hope that the common ideals of humanity and of religion can have united expression for the reestablishment of peace upon the foundations of freedom and assurances of life and independence for all nations.

Cordially yours,


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1. Hull - FDR 2/7/40. . 2. FDR - Pope Pius XII, 2/14/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Taylor - FDR 2/27/40

Document:
U.S.S. TUSCALOOSA


FOLLOWING FROM MYRON TAYLOR IN ROME ITALY QUOTE PRESENTATION CEREMONIES
CONCLUDED WITH HIGHEST SPIRITUAL DIGNITY AND HUMAN UNDERSTANDING STOP HIS
HOLINESS CONVEYS THROUGH ME HIS BLESSING AND WARMEST REGARDS TO YOU PERSONALLY
STOP HIS EMININENCE CARDINAL SECRETARY OF STATE JOINS IN GREETINGS AND BEST
WISHES STOP BEST REGARDS

DATE: 27FEB40
FROM: PRESIDENT'S EXEC OFFICE
TO: PRESIDENT


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Summerlin - FDR 4/5/40

Document:
Letter from George T. Summerlin

April 5, 1940

Encloses despatch from Myron Taylor transmitting a copy of a letter from Cardinal Maglione and gift of two copies of Annuario Pontificio--parchment bound copy for the President and the other one for Secretary of State.

Mr. Taylor was requested to convey to the Cardinal an appropriate expression of the President's appreciation for the gift.

The following letters were attached to the book and sent to the White House:
Letter to Sec of State from Myron Taylor--March 8, 1940 re Annuario Pontificio (Pontifical Year Book) which was forwarded by the Cardinal to Taylor together with his letter dated Feb 29, 1940.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Welles - FDR 4/6/40.

Document:
DEPARTMENT OF STATE

WASHINGTON

April 6, 1940

My dear Mr. President:

With reference to your memorandum of April l,1940 concerning publication of the Pope's letter, it has been decided after due consideration of all aspects not to publish the letter unless you should wish otherwise. Mr. Taylor has been so informed.

The original of the letter is returned herewith.
Faithfully yours,
Enclosure:
From Pope Plus XII,
March 16, 1940.

The President,
The White House.

The Pope' s letter of March 16, 1940
which was handed to the President
by Sumner Welles is attached.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1. FDR - Hull and Welles, 4/1/40. 2. Welles - FDR 3/30/40. 3. Pope Pius XII - FDR n.d. 4. Pope Pius XII - FDR 3/16/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR - Hull and Welles, 4/1/40

Document:
April 1, 1940

MEMORANDUM FOR
THE SECRETARY OF STATE
THE UNDERSECRETARY OF STATE

Myron Taylor has asked if the Pope's letter is to be given out here so that it can be given out in Rome at the same time. Will you make the decision and does the letter need a reply?
F.D.R.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1. Welles - FDR 4/6/40. 2. Welles - FDR 3/30/40. 3. Pope Pius XII - FDR n.d. 4. Pope Pius XII - FDR 3/16/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Welles - FDR 3/30/40

Document:
THE UNDER SECRETARY OF STATE
WASHINGTON

March 30, 1940.

My dear Mr. President:

I enclose a copy of a telegram received from Mr. Myron Taylor in Rome in regard to the publication of the Pope's letter whlch I handed to you this morning. It seems apparent that the Vatican desires to give publicity to this communication which could here be done by here by having copies handed to the press by Mr. Early.

If you approve, a delay of thlrty-six hours would seem desirable in order that the Vaitcan might be informed in sufficient time to make arrangements for simultaneous publication.
Faithfully yours,

Enclosure:
From Rome,
March 29, 1940.

The President,
The White House.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1. Welles - FDR 4/6/40. 2. FDR - Hull and Welles, 4/1/40 . 3. Pope Pius XII - FDR n.d. 4. Pope Pius XII - FDR 3/16/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Pope Pius XII - FDR n.d.

Document:
To His Excellency
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
President of the United States of America


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1. Welles - FDR 4/6/40. 2. FDR - Hull and Welles, 4/1/40 . 3. Welles - FDR 3/30/40 4. Pope Pius XII - FDR 3/16/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Pope Pius XII - FDR 3/16/40

Document:
To His Excellency
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
President of the United States of America

Pius P.P. XII

Most Excellent Sir:
Health and Prosperity


The pleasure which was ours on the twenty-seventh day of Februaury as We received in Solemn Audience the Representative of Your Excellency was enhanced by the autograph letter which be bore from you and placed into our hands. We are sicerely grateful for this further evidence of your solicitude for the restoration of peace among nations now estranged as well as for the expressions of cordial greeting which you have been pleased to use in our regard.

We confess to have been sensibly affected as We beheld before Us your own Representative come upon a noble mission of peace and healing, to seek with Us ways and means of giving back to a warring works its rightful heritage of concord and the freedom to pursue in justice and tranquility its temporal and external happiness. In a moment of universal travail, when hope contends with fear in the souls of so many millions of men, We have been greatly encouraged by the vision of new possibilities of beneficient action opened up to usthrough the presence near Us of your Distinguished Representative. Since the obligations of Christian charity towards the needy and the dispossessed have ever constituted a prior claim upon Our affections and resources as they have upon those of our predecessors, it is with particular satisfaction the We welcome Your Excellency's endeavors for the alleviation of suffering. Our contemporaries follow with their heart-felt prayers, and posterity will hold in honored memory, all of those who, undeterred by immense difficulties, dedicate themselves tothe sacred task of staunching the flow of youthful blood
upon the fields of battle, and to the comforting of civilian victims despoiled and afflicted by the cruel conditions of our day. Blessed, indeed, are the peacemakers.

And although one who with discerning surveys the present international scene can have no illusions as to the magnitude of the role which has been undertaken, We are convinced that it is in the interest of all that We should go forward with Our labors to the end that the days of grievous trial be shortened, preparing and straightening the way, levelling the mountains of anger which
bar the road to understanding and filling up the valleys of distrust and suspicion which divide man from man and nation from nation. Thus may We hope that the natural law, graven by the Creator on the hearts of men, may soon, as itmust ultimately, prevail as the universal rule of human conduct over arbitrary whim and sordid interest which here and there have usurped its place, and that in consequence the rising generation may be saved from the moral illiteracy with which they are threatened. And thus, when all shall have come finally to realize that violence is futile and that hatred is a sterile force, a wearied world may rejoice in a peac builded upon the solid foundation of justice and firmly held together by the bonds of fraternal charity.

We renew to Your Excellency the expression of Our gratitude for your greeting while, in the light of happy rememberance, We pray for your continued well-being and for that of the American people.

Given at Rome, from St. Peter's, the 16th day of March, 1940, the second year of our pontificate.

PIUS P.P. XII


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1. Welles - FDR 4/6/40. 2. FDR - Hull and Welles, 4/1/40 . 3. Welles - FDR 3/30/40 4. Pope Pius XII - FDR, n.d..



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Note of Enclosure for FDR.

Document:

ENCLOSURE
TO

Letter drafted

ADDRESSED TO

The President,
the White House.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1. Hull - FDR 6/18/40. 2. FDR - Hull 5/24/40. 3. FDR - Taylor 6/18/40. 4. memo in re: US -Vatican relations. 5. Hull - Commission for Polish Relief 6/18/40. 6. Pope Pius XII - Taylor 4/16/40 ..



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Hull - FDR 6/18/40

Document:
DEPARTMENT OF STATE
WASHINGTON
June 18, 1940

My dear Mr. President:

In compliance with your memorandum of May 24, 1940, I enclose a suggested reply which Mr. Taylor may care to make to the note verbale from the Vatican, together with a covering letter to Mr. Taylor for your signature.

Faithfully yours,

Enclosures:
Letter to Mr. Taylor,
Note verbale; Copy of letter to
Commission for Polish Relief;
Note verbale from The Vatican.

The President,
The White House.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.Note of Enclosure for FDR . 2. FDR - Hull 5/24/40. 3. FDR - Taylor 6/18/40. 4. memo in re: US -Vatican relations. 5. Hull - Commission for Polish Relief 6/18/40. 6. Pope Pius XII - Taylor 4/16/40 ..



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Pope Pius XII - FDR 8/22/40

Document:
To His Excellency Franklin Delano Roosevelt, President of the United States of
America

Pius XII

Most Excellent Sir: Health and Prosperity.

The Return of the United States of Your Excellency's Personal Representative to Us, for the purpose of recruiting in the homeland the forces so generously spent in the fulfillment of his noble mission, affords Us a welcome opportunity of sending you Our cordial greetings, and of reiterating Our appreciation for the presence of your Envoy near Us. In the light of experience,
We now have further and ampler proof of the wisdom which inspired Your excellency to dispatch your representatives to Us, as we have cause to rejoice the felicity of choice which led you to entrust this important post to the Honorable Myron C. Taylor.

These first months of the mission have occasioned Us great satisfaction and, in spite of the dark forebodings of the hour. We express Our hope in a future which shall see the reestablishment of a general and enduring peace. Although the horrors of the war increase and Our sorrow deepens with every passing day, We are rebuilding Our prayers and Our endeavors to find a practi-
cable way to such a peace as will bear within it the promise of permanency, and free men from the heavy incubus of insecurity and of perpetual alarms. In our unceasing search for that peace which will be no longer, as so often in the past, a parenthesis of exhaustion between two phases of conflict, but rather, by the grace of God, a golden era of Christian concord dedicated to
the spiritual and material improvement of humanity, We feel a distinct sense of comfort in the thought that We shall not be without the powerful support of the President of the United States.

It is therefore with heartfelt good will that We again assure Your Excellency of Our prayers for your continued health and happiness and for the prosperity and progress of the American people.

Given at Rome, from St. Peter's, the 22nd day of August, 1940, the second year of Our Pontificate,

Pius XII


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: memo FDR - Taylor 9/13/40

Document:
Conf Memo to Myron Taylor from FDR---September l3, 1940
Asks for his thought on enclosed letter to FDR from Paul Appleby, Acting Sec of Agriculture, re Wallaces discussion with the President concerning relation of present regime in France to various religius groups in other countries--attaches additional information which tells of previous activities of new French Amb to U. S.--M. Henry Haye who was closely affiliated with Mr. Hitler's
agent, Abetz. Mr. Taylors reply of Sept 18, 1940 attached.

See :Wallace-Drawer 1-1940


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR - Pope Pius XII 10/1/40.

Document:
Your Holiness:-

Upon his return to the United States, Mr. Myron C. Taylor duly delivered to me your message of August twenty-secoond and I am deeply gratfied by Your Holiness' expression of satisfaction concerning Mr. Taylor's mission.

Particular note has been taken of the assurance of Your Holiness' continuing efforts to find the way to a peace which bears promise not only of permanency, but also of freedom from perpetual alarm and opportunity for the spiritual and material improvement of humanity. It seems imperative that this search shall not be abandoned, no matter how deep may be the shadow of
the present strife. It is equally necessary to realize that peace as Your Holiness conceives it must be based upon the reestablishment of Christian law and doctrine as the guiding principles which govern the relations of free men and free nations. The spiritual freedom and political independence which alone make possible this rebuilding of the structure of peace thus
become a necessary part of our common goal. In the search of it, the Government and people of the united States are glad to lend their sympathy and toevate their efforts.

May I assure Your Holiness of my profound appreciation of the reception accorded to Mr. Taylor and of your message of good will.

May I also take this occasion to send to Your Holiness my very deep personal good wishes and to express my hope and wish for your continued good health. The whole world needs you in its search for peace and good will.

His Holiness
Pius XII
State of the Vatican City.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1. Hull - FDR 9/25/40. 2. draft - FDR - Pope Pius XII 10/1/40..



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Hull - FDR 9/25/40

Document:
DEPARTMENT OF STATE
WASHINGTON
September 25, 1940

My dear Mr. President:
In compliance with your request of September 16, I enclose a draft of a possible reply to the communication which you have received from Pope Pius XII, which is returned herewith.

Faithfully yours,



Enclosure:

1. Draft.
2. Communication from
Pope Plus XII.




The President,

The White House.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.FDR - Pope Pius XII 10/1/40. . 2. draft - FDR - Pope Pius XII 10/1/40..



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: draft - FDR - Pope Pius XII 10/1/40.

Document:
Your Holiness:

Upon his return to the United States, Mr. Myron C.Taylor duly delivered to me your message of August 22nd and I am deeply gratified by Your Holiness' expression of satisfaction concerning Mr. Taylor's mission.

Particular note has been taken of the assurance of Your Holiness' continuing efforts to find the way to a peace which bears promise not only of permanency, but also of freedom from perpetual alarm and opportmnlty for the spiritual and material improvement of humanity. It seems imperative that this search shall not be abandoned, no matter how deep may be the shadow of
the present strife. It is equally necessary to realize that peace as Your Holiness conceives It must be based upon the reestablishment of Christian law and doctrine as the guiding principles which govern the relations of free men and free nations. The spiritual freedom and political independence which alone make possible this rebuilding of the structure of peace thus become a necessary part of our common goal. In the search for it, the Government and people of the United States are glad to lend their sympathy and to devote their efforts.

May I assure Your Holiness of my profound appreciation of the reception accorded to Mr. Taylor and of your message of good will.

May I also take this occasion to send to Your Holiness my very deep personal good wishes and to express my hope and wish for your continued good health. The whole world needs you in its search for peace and good will.



His Holiness

Plus XII,

State of the Vatican City. .


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.FDR - Pope Pius XII 10/1/40. 2. Hull - FDR 9/25/40.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Pope Pius XII - FDR 12/20/40.

Document:
To His Excellency Franklin Delano Roosevelt, President of the United States of America

In being elected for a third term to the Presidency of the United
States of America, at a time of such grave moment for the life of nations, Your Excellency has received from your country a singular proof of confidence.

The Personal relations had with Your Excellency on the occasion of Our visit to the United States, when We were Cardinal Secretary of State to the late lamented Supreme Pontiff, and the gracious reception you extended to Us, put Us in the way to appreciate your generous spirit; and today, while We offer you congratulations, We pray Almighty God to guide your mind and
heart in the noble and arduous task of leading a free and vigorous people for the greater stability of universal order, justice, and peace.

A tangible proof of these generous dispositions We have had in your sending His Excellency Mr. Myron Taylor to Us, as your personal representative with rank of Ambassador Extraordinary. Special circumstances have interrrupted his presence with Us, but We like to hope that the plan for the attainment pf those high ideals you had in mind may yet be realized.

Indeed, We are not unaware of the efforts which you made to prevent the catastrophic struggle that is heaping up ruin and sorrow for a great part of the Old World; and in Our paternal solicitude for suffering humanity there is nothing We desire more ardently than to see true pece return at long last among peoples, who have been too long and too painfully stricken and afflicted:- that true peace, We mean, that will adjust all wrongs, that will recognize with well-judged equity the vital necessities of
all, and thus mark for the world a the beginning of a new era of tranquility, collaboration and progress among peoples under the longed-for reign of Christian justice and charity.

While We renew the expression of Our good wishes for you personally and for the nation over which you preside, We invoke on both an abundance of God's blesings.

Given at Rome, from the Palace of the Vatican, the twentieth day of December 1940, the second year of Our Pontificate.

Pius pp. XII


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Pope Pius XII - FDR 12/20/40 in Latin

Document:
Text file is not available. See original document.

In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: LeHand - Taylor 2/18/41

Document:
February 18, 1941

My dear Mr. Taylor:-
The President has asked
me to thank you ever so much for letting
him see that intensely interesting letter
from Count Whadimir d-Ormesson.
The President hopes very much that
you are feeling better and sends you and
Mrs. Taylor his best wishes.

Very sincerely yours,
M.A. Le Hand
PRIVATE SECRETARY

Honorable Myron C. Taylor,
Vita Serena,
South Ocean Boulevard,
Palm Beach,
Florida.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.Taylor - LeHand 2/15/41. 2. Wladimir d"Ormesson - Taylor 1/9/41.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Taylor - LeHand 2/15/41

Document:
At Vita Serena,
South Ocean Bouleveard,
Palm Beach, Florida,
February 15, 1941.

Miss Marguerite A. LeHand,
The White House, Washington.

Dear Miss LeHand:
This translation of a letter from Count Wladimir d'Ormesson, former French ambassador to the Vatican, dated Lyon, France, January 9th, recounting the condition of affairs in that country, is highly enlightening and interesting, and, I believe, of sufficient importance to be brought to the attention of the President.
I shall appreciate it if you will see that this is done; and with best
wishes, believe me,
Sicerely yours,
(signed) Myron C. Taylor


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.LeHand - Taylor 2/18/41. 2. Wladimir d"Ormesson - Taylor 1/9/41.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Wladimir d"Ormesson - Taylor 1/9/41

Document:
COPY TRANSLATION
Lyon, January 9, 1941

My dear Ambassador:
It was with great regret that I learned from the newspapers that you had to undergo another surgical operation. I hope, with all my heart, thatyou will find complete recovery this time, and I pray to God that He sustain you in these distressing times of illness. Everyone at the Vatican will certainly have regretted to hear of your further suffering.

Since six weeks I have been in France after having beensacrificed, as you probably know, by Mr. Laval on the altar of the so-called Franco-German "Collaboraton." This collaboration has only brought worse treatment, if possible, to my unfortunate country by the pitiles occupants. I am glad, however, to be again among my compatriots and to suffer with them; glad also to learn that they think the same as I. As there is no more any means of
writing or speaking openly in France what one thinks it may be that from afar you have the impression that the French people are resigned to their fate and that there are even many who wish for an accord with the Nazi. If, by chance, you should have this
impression I can assure you that it does not correspond to the real condition. It is exactly the contrary.

The way Germany is treating France, the robbery, the pillage, the razzia, increase the anti-Nazi sentiment day by day. There is even a change since I arrived. The last defenders of Mr. Laval even are edified. One really understands that there is nothing to be done, nothing to hope for from these brigands and that only their defeat can assure to Europe and to humanity the peace and the concord so earnestly desired. You cannot imagine the
pressure exercised by Germany in ever increasing force against us; life becomes really intolerable and I fear that we are going straight, and very quickly, to event horrible for our country. As I wrote to you in September France is hostage and as the difficulties of the Axis increase the dictators put pressure on
France in order to blackmail the United States. Despite this we all prefer to suffer, and to suffer still more, if, as we hope, at the end of our suffering there is liberation and restoraion of those principles without which life is not worth living.

This will suffice to tell you with what admiration and with what high
hopes we follow the magnificent actions of President Roosevelt. His re-election was the first good news we had since the sinister days of 1940. Hisradio talk was greeted in France with a veritable enthusiasm (a silent enthusiasm because, alas, we have no longer the right to say anything), but I assure you that the people congratulated one another in the streets, as the American and English radio stations gave ample resumes. Our only great hope lies in you, dear American friends, and in the ever increasing aid, more and more efective, which you are giving to the admirable British who are defending civilization and who, with God's
assistance, will save it, but we must not hide the fact that we have many dangerous and difficult months ahead. Should Germany fail to overcome British resistance by the end of this summer we shall be delivered and victory will be on our side. But as Germany knows as well as we do that it has no more than six months to win it is certain that it will make a superhuman effort to reach a decision before summer. It will depend almost entirely on the United States, on its material aid, on its political attitude, that this
dangerous passage be overcome and that the United States will go to the limit the more our moral resistance will develop, the more will events evolve in the right direction. I believe, furthermore, that England should deliver a mortal blow to Italy as soon as possible, to eliminate it from the struggle thus injecting disorder in the axis system and in the German plans. It is on the way to doing this magnificently in Lybia, but I am covinced that as long as the Italian population itself does not suffer severe air bombardments serious trouble will not take place in Italy. The Itlaians will grumble, as they have already grumbled, but they will remain passive. But I am also convinced, from all that I hear from those coming from that country, that the said population would not resist threee
weeks against the daily regime which the Germans have inflicted on the English for the past six months. There would be such panic in Italy that it would sweep aside the present regime and would ask peace of the English. In my opinion this would have inclalculable repercussions in Germany because these two gangster regimes are holding each other up. It is this that Hitler fears above all. I know that it is cruel to have this charming people suffer a bad quarter hour, which people you love as I do; but it committed a mortal sin when it followed bandit no, 2, Mussolini, and it needs to rid itself of him. We must win the war and there is, unfortunately, no means to do it without victims.

You will pardon me for taking up so much of your time but I desire to let you know the actual feelings in France, and to tell you with what hope, with what anxiety we all have our eyes turned towards the United States,with what resolution we are ready to support still the suffering provided that liberty be returned to our Fatherland. Because we have lost this liberty despite the noble efforts of Marshal Petain, whom we all venerate, but who is only the symbol of a mutilated Fatherland, a fatherland oppressed, pillaged,
muzzled, which does not want to be in slavery to Germany and which, with the help of God and the Americans, it will escape. If you could communicate this letter to the President I would have no objection to your doing so, confidentially, naturally.

With my best wishes for your rapid and complete recovery, I am, my dear Ambassador,
Cordially and Devotedly,
W. D'ORMESSON.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.LeHand - Taylor 2/18/41. 2. Taylor - LeHand 2/15/41.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Welles - FDR 3/1/41

Document:
DEPARTMENT OF STATE
WASHINGTON

March 1, 1941

My dear Mr. President:
I return herewith the letter to you from His Excellency Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, Apostilic Delgate,Washington, dated
February 15, 1941, transmitting a letter from His Holiness, Pope Pius XII, extending congratulations upon your reelection to the Presidency of the United States, together with suggested
replies for your signature, if you approve. The reply to the Pope has been prepared in typewritten form. You may prefer, however, to have it answered in the formal engrossed style in which it was received. If so, I shall haveit prepared accordingly.

Faithfully yours,
(signed) Sumner Welles

Enclosures:
letter from His
Excellency Amleto
Giovanni Cicognani
of Februaury 15;
letter from Pope
Pius XII

The President,
The White House.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.FDR - Ciognani 2/15/41. 2. FDR - Pope Pius XII, n.d. 3. Ciognani - FDR 2/15/41. 4. Pope Pius XII - FDR copy.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR - Ciognani 2/15/41

Document:
My dear Archbishop Ciciognani:

I have received your letter of February 15, 1941, with which you were kind enough to transmit the autographed letter from His Holiness, Pope Pius XII.

Would you be good enough to transmit my reply to His Holiness and at the same time to express my deep appreciation of the message from the cardinal Secretary of State?

With the assurance of my highest regard,
believe me
Yours very sincerely,

His Excellency
The Most Reverend
Amleto Giovanni Cicognani,
Archbishop of Laodicea di Frigia,
The Apostilic Delegate,
Washington.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.Welles - FDR 3/1/41. 2. FDR - Pope Pius XII, n.d. 3. Ciognani - FDR 2/15/41. 4. Pope Pius XII - FDR copy.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR - Pope Pius XII, n.d.

Document:
Your Holiness:

Your Holiness has been good enough to send me a message upon the occasion of my reelection to the Presidency of the United States of America and to recall the cordial relations I had with Your Holiness when, as Cardinal Secretary of State, you visited this country.

I take this occasion not only to express my profound appreciation of your message but to reiterate the hope that through friendly association between the seekers of light and the seekers of peace everywhere a firm basis of lasting concord between men and nations can be established throughout the world once again. Only when the principles of Christianity and the right of all peoples to live free from the threat of external aggression are
established can that peace which Your Holiness and I so ardently desire be found.

To my deep regret Mr. Myron Taylor has been obliged to interrrupt his mission in Italy but I hope that his health may soon be sufficiently restored to enable him to return to Rome.

Believe me, with the assurances of my highest regard,
Your very sicerely,

His Holiness
Pope Pius XII
Vatican City.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.Welles - FDR 3/1/41. 2. FDR - Ciognani 2/15/41. 3. Ciognani - FDR 2/15/41. 4. Pope Pius XII - FDR copy.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Ciognani - FDR 2/15/41

Document:
3339 Mass. Ave NW
Washington, D.C.
February 15, 1941.

Mr President,

I have the honor to forward herewith to Your Excellency an autograph letter of congratulations and good wishes from His Holiness, Pope Pius XII. An office copy of the document is likewise enclosed. This letter was sent to me by His Eminince, Cardinal Maglione, for transmission to Your Excellency, and I am commanded also to convey the personal good wishes of the Cardinal Secretary of State. In doing so I take the occasion to renew my own greetings and the assurance on prayers voiced recently in person to Your Excellency.

With sentiments of highest esteem, Mr. President, I remain
Yours faithfully,

A. G. Cicognani,
Apostilic Delegate.


To the President
of the United States


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.Welles - FDR 3/1/41. 2. FDR - Ciognani 2/15/41. 3. FDR - Pope Pius XII, n.d. . 4. Pope Pius XII - FDR copy.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Pope Pius XII - FDR copy

Document:
COPY
TO HIS EXCELLENCY
FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT
PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

PIUS D.D. XII

In being elected for a third term to the Presidency of the United States of America, at a time of such grave moment for the life of nations, Your Excellency has received from your country a singular proof of confidence.

The personal relations had with Your Excellency on the occasion of our visit to the United States, when we were Cardinal Secretary of State to the late lamented Supreme Pontiff, and the gracious reception you extended to us,put us in the way to appreciate your generous spirit; and today, while we offer you congratulations, we pray Almighty God to guide your mind and heart in the noble and arduous task of leading a free and vigorous people for the
greater stability of universal order, justice, and peace.

A tangible proof of these generous dispositions we have had in your sending His Excellency Mr. Myron Taylor to Us, as your personal Representative with rank of Ambassador Extraordinary. Special circumstances have interrupted his presence with us; but we like to hope that the plan for the attainment of those high ideals you had in mind may yet be realized.

Indeed, We are not unaware of the efforts which you made to prevent the catastrophic struggle that is heaping up ruin and sorrow for a great part of the Old World; and in our paternal solicitude for suffering humanity there is nothing we desire more ardently than to see true peace return at long last among peoples, who have been too long and too painfully stricken and afflicted; -that true peace, we mean, that will adjust all wrongs, that will recognize with well-judged equity the vital necessities of all, and thus mark for the world the beginning of a new era of tranquility, collaboration and progress among peoples under the longed-for reign of christian justice and charity.

While we renew the expression of Our good wishes for you personally and for the nation over which you preside, we invoke on both an abundance of God's blessings.

Given at Rome, from the Palace of the Vatican, the twentieth day of december, the second year of our Pontificate.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
1.Welles - FDR 3/1/41. 2. FDR - Ciognani 2/15/41. 3. FDR - Pope Pius XII, n.d. . 4. Ciognani - FDR 2/15/41..



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Pope Pius XII - FDR 3/4/41

Document:
March 4. 1941

Mr. President,

I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of Your Excellency's letter of March 3rd, forwarding a communication of the same date for transmission to His Holiness, Pope Pius XII. I shall send on this message at once, and at same time I shall voice Your Excellency's appreciation for the greetings received from His Eminence, Cardinal Maglione. I wrote that to-day is the eighth anniversary of your first inauguration as President of the United States, and I take the occasion to invoke abundance of heavenly blessiongs upon yourself and upon this great nation.

With sentiments of highest esteem, I have the honor to remain,
most faithfully yours,

A.G. Cicognani,
Apostilic delegate.

The President of the United States,
White House.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR - Hull 3/10/41

Document:
THE WHITE HOUSE
WASHINGTON
March 10, 1941
Memorandum for the Secretary of State and Under Secretary of State
To read and return.
F.D.R.

Letter from Hon. William Phillips, Embassy of the U.S.A., Rome, Italy, 2/18/41 to the President, in further reference to matter "which you asked me to take up with the Vatican", in re position, which is not mentioned. Attached is anotherletter which he has addressed to the President dated 2/17/41, in re situation in Italy.


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR - Welles 4/1/41

Document:
THE WHITE HOUSE
WASHINGTON
April 1, 1941
Memorandum for Hon. Sumner Welles

Please draft an Easter message to the Pope--not necessarily for publication but to be delivered informally through Tittman.

F.D.R.

Dispatch from Rome # 415, March 27, 1941 from Phillips


In the FDR Library, this document is stapled or otherwise attachedto:
.



Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Wladimir Ormeston - Taylor 4/25/41

Document:
[translation]
7 rue Alphonse Fochier
Lyon
April 25, 1941

My dear Ambassador:

I was very happy to receive your letter of February 15th and to learn from you yourself that your health was better. I express the very sincere hope that it will get better and better and that you will no longer have to suffer those spells that are so painful. Do you intend to return to Rome? I am glad to receive news from our Vatican City friends, Id. Osborne in particular. I know that they are well, but that they are experiencing trying times, with these happenings.

Since my last letter, these happenings have, in fact, become worse. Since I have gotten into the habit of confiding in you something of my feelings and my worries, I am taking the liberty this time again of writing to you in an entirely confidential way, in order to give you some indications which may interest you, regarding our state of mind.

This state of mind, in France, is at the same time very good and very bad. Very good, because the people are more resistant than ever against the occupier, stronger than ever in their suffering (which is indeed general, for we eat little and we lack everything).
But, for that very reason, this methodical and continuous plundering of France exasperates the people, and the population is more anti-Nazi than ever. The businessmen or politicians (there are some) who reach an agreement with the Germans will pay dearly, some day, for their present attitude. They are
marked men, and the fury of the populace will turn against them when we have regained our freedom (if we ever do so!). It may be said that all France is with England in her fight for liberty. It may be said that all France is conscious of the high stakes in the game which is being played and in which our fate is at stake - but, alas, we are (partly through our own fault, for that matter) in such a position that we can do nothing. We are condemned to
impotence and, what is even worse, to silence. You may say to yourself that there is no real corresondence between the official attitude of unoccupied France (radio, press, etc.) and what the French people are really thinking - except for the unanimous respect that surrounds Marshal Petain personally.

Unfortunately, it must be said also that at this moment we are all very uneasy. Uneasy because the German victories in the Balkans and, in particular, in Cyrenaica and on the borders
of Egypy, are restoring German prestige and we are asking ourselves if England is not going to receive a terrible blow in the Mediterranean? Uneasy because we fear that this situation may affect American opinion itself. And we are wondering, in anguish, if the German victories will not discourage the United States and slow down its efforts instead of intensifying them. Uneasy, lastly,
because we are wondering, in dread, whether the present effort is great enough, whether the results expected from it will not come too late, whether, lastly, the American people will not decide to get into the war in reality until the war is lost.

I need not tell ou that the German propaganda, which acts in France as it desires, since the Germans are masters here (even in the so-called unoccupied zone), is methodically spreading news which sustains and enlivens these doubts. In the highest circles (where they are said to be convinced of Germany's total victory), doubts are likewise cast on the efficacy of American aid. I am not
speaking of the Marshal, of course, who, besides, does not tell anyone what he thinks. But I am talking of those around him, among whom, unfortunately, there are many persons who have been won over to the so-called "collaboration" policy. Among those persons, shoulders are shrugged when American aid is spoken of, and the salvation that may come to us from the United States. It is good if you are not called a drunken man or a fool. At any rate, you are called a simpleton. Despite everything, these remarks finally reach the public. There results from this are a certain uneasiness, a certain diminution in faith in American aid
and in the outcome of the conflict. Ah! If the United States were at war and said: "we will never accept a victory by the Axis. It may last for years, but let it cost what it may, we are resolved to carry on the fight to the end." Then you would see the reaction in Frace! Everyone would regain courage and would make life hard for the Germans. If only arms could reach us, you would see what the French would do with them this time! For they have finally come
to understand that their life is at stake. But there is too much feeling in France (I am speaking to you frankly) that the Americans are not keeping up with events, that they do not understand their gravity, that they are not producing enough, are not working eough, that there are too many strikes, too many "5th columns" which are manipulating them inside the country. There is too much feeling that time is being lost in parliamentary procedure, in deciding on such or such a measure, no matter how urgent and indispensable; too much feeling that men will never be sent to fight, to keep a wave of discouragement from coming to weaken us
and plunge us into a decline.

As to myself, I am convinced that Hitler is going to accomplish the
impossible in order to assure himself mastery of the Mediterranean as soon as possible. He is going to throw armored divisions against Egypt, the Suez Canal and the Red Sea. He is undoubtedly going to occupy Lisbon also and cross to
the other side of the strait of Gibraltar, to hold the Strait at his mercy. And when he has become master of all Europe, he will turn toward you Americans and say to you: "I am leaving Great Britain her empire freely; I am only taking from her the Mediterranean islands that did not belong to her. Let me organize
Europe as I see fit and let us make peace." And then what will you say? That is the maneuver that is planned.

Now I have no need to tell you what a Europe "organized" by Nazi Germany would be! One vast Slovakia! We should all be reduced to military, economic, financial and intellectual slavery. No more liberty! No longer any independence of mind. The life that we are leading is already a hellish one. It will become stabilized. And you will feel the result, even in America. Everything will be brought into the exclusive service of Germany. One of my friends, who is a swiss and a banker and for that reason frequently comes in contact with German businieesmen, told me just yesterday that it was striking to see how those famous "european benefits" consisted, as soon as they could be gotten to talking, always in assuring here, there, and in everything, German domination pure and simple. Already, in France, they are
assuring control of all matters, both industrial and intellectual. That is a tidal wave, a scourge such as the world has never seen yet! And for that very reason, what disturbs me is that the American people, despite the far-seeing and wonderful warnings of President Roosevelt and his collaborators, does not seem to have realized yet the true reach, the extent of the gravity of this
scourge. The United States went to war in 1917 to aid the allies to escape the victory and the hegemony of William II. But the Germany of William II was a dream in comparison with that of the Nazis! We could have lived in Europe with the victory of that Germany, however detestable it was. We shall not be able to live in Europe under the domination of the abominable gangsters in brown shirts. I understand Count Teleki! I assure you that all Europe will count as Teleki did! It is horrible to have young children and to say to oneself that they are perhaps called to lve under the boot of those brutes! It would have been better not to beget them. So I have difficulty in understanding, I must confess, how the United States, which went into the 1917 war from such honorable motives, should still hesitate to make its maximum
effort in this war, since the motives of 25 years ago are, so to speak, nothing in comparison with those of today! I assure you that it is not an idle phrase to say that civilization is at stake. France herself does not count in this disaster; the disaster far exceeds the case of France.

I know that I am preaching to a converted person. But I should like, however, for you to know what anguish there is in me, in us, in forty million French people, in three hundred million Europeans and Christians!

Believe me, it is a question of life and death for all of us and, in view of this unprecedented drama, the United States bears the supreme responsibility.

For everything depends on you, from this time forward. Unfortunate England can no longet win the war alone; she can no longer even continue the struggle alone. Besides, she made a grave error in not settling matters with Italy last winter. As I wrote to you at the time, morale was so low in Italy that if the English had treated the population harshly, bombing their cities, they could
have, I believe, produced serious disturbances in Italy. But they are too much "gentlemen." They let the moment slip by. They were wrong also in not going as far as Tripoli. In short, at the present time, Mussolini's stock has risen. England is going to have a terrible part to play from now on. And what if she should get discouraged too? You alone can maintain all the world
in resistance, material or moral, by casting into the balance the decisive weight of your force. If you go to war, then victory cannot go to Germany. Everyone knows that. The reactions will be immediate. The will to continue the fight will be increased tenfold. All the birds of ill men, all the direct or indirect agents of Germany will be reduced to silence. While if the opposite takes place -

The Germans have won everything so far, in Poland, in Norway, in Holland, in Belgium, in France, in Serbia, in Greece, in Cyrenaica, by the same means: tanks and airplanes in liason. They have found the weapon for this war. They manufactured it in quantities. They know how to make use of it. By it they have conquered Europe. The sole means of making them disgorge is to have more and larger tanks than theirs, more and deadlier airplanes than theirs. As soon as that superiority in mechanism is acquired, the means for victory will be forged! Besides, such equipment will have to be able to reach this continent and there must be mechanically trained men to operate it. Besides, England
must, above all else, hold out until then.

Well, in my opinion, England will hold out, and we shall all hold out, and it will be possible to find bases for the arrival of this saving equipment, if you take such a position now that no doubt can be held any longer as to your determination to lead the fight for the liberation of Europe.

But I believe, in all frankness, that you can delay no longer in taking that position. That is what I wanted to tell you in full frankness. Excuse me for having spoken with such ardor such sincerity - and, in particular, in such length! But under the circumstances in which we are, frankness is necessary. You must
know what we think. Our ideal of life is the same; like others, we love liberty, independence and sound democracy. It is because we are all of us in peril of death that we turn to us not only as to friends, but as to coreligionists.

I shall not see any imporopriety, but just the opposite, in your showing this letter to the President and those of our political friends who might be interested, preserving, of course, its strictly confidential character. Ihave to you in full confidence.

Please believe me, my dear Ambassador, the expression of my most cordially devoted sentiments.

Wladimir J. Ormeston

Please give my best regards to Angel Algars, if you see him.


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Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Ormeston - Taylor 5/1/41

Document:
7 Rue Alphonse Fochier
Lyon, May 1 1941

My dear Ambassador:

I wrote to you about ten days ago and here I am again abusing your patience! You will please pardon me. But I wish to send you by a sure means an article which I have published in the "Revue des Deux Mondes" on the Holy See and the Peace" which may be of interest to you. I have not signed the article out of courtesy to the Holy Father and writing anonymously permits me to say a certain number of things which I could not otherwise express in view of the official mission I had there. But I believe it to be of use to call the attention of the general public (using the discretion necessary) to the violations committed by Italy in regard to the Lateran Accord and to the absolutely paradoxical situation in Rome of the religious establishments of the belligerent countries
sequestered by Italy. Perhaps it will be possible for you to bring this article to the attention of some American magazine or newspaper which would be interested in these Vatican questions. You will see, on the other hand, that I have used all my efforts to assemble the various statements of Pope Pius XII regarding the war and the future peace and there is gathered therefrom a
very strong and very clear doctrine which should be brought to light.

Since my last letter the currents of which I spoke to you have been
accentuated. It is plain that German propaganda is endeavoring, with an infernal art, to exploit the recent successes of the Axis in Yugoslavia, Greece, and Cyrensica to impress public opinion, to make make it believe that the game is already over; that there is no further chance for England to win the war and that the simplest and best policy is to resign one's self immediately to the complete triumph of Germany! Unfortunately, a certain number of people are
shaken and, although deploring it, consider that this submission is, perhaps, the right thing. They are manipulated by the knaves which Germany keeps among us who are, alas, numerous and very well supplied with tools. However, those who allow themselves to be swayed by the German success and the Nazi propaganda are but a infinite minority of the country; the immense majority of the French people maintain all their faith, as they maintain all their energy, but this time, I repeat, it reposes solely in the United States.

Everyone says: "If the United States enters the war then everything becomes possible again, even certain. But if the United States does not make the necessary effort - that is to say, all the effort necessary - then England, alone, will end by succumbing and we shall be lost with her." It is therefore on you, definitively, that the fate of Europe and of the world depends. I
affirm to you that the day on which France is convinced that there is no doubt concerning your will to win the situation, even here, will be reversed.

At this time I bring to your attention that the propaganda against America is being carried on with great frenzy and makes use of every means among them that of trying to convince the people that despite the admirable declarations of President Roosevelt, despite those of Mr. Hull, despite the naval measures taken, the American business and industrial centers are very gloomy about the situation, they consider that all is lost for England and they endeavor to restrain the President and to oppose his actions. This is what certain people are saying in Paris and Vichny, stating that they are very well informed and in touch with the United States. They are doing a lot of harm here and have very bad influence on important people. I am telling you this for whatever
good use can be made of it.

The following is characteristic of the state of opinion here vis-a-vis
the United States: Some days ago the "Gazette de Lausanne" published a dispatch stating that Washington was preoccupied with the situation in North Africa where the Germans are filtering in more and more every day and that a "courtesy visit" of the American fleet to Casablanca was envisaged. Well, the day after this article, which caused a sensation, appeared the people were saying: "what a pity it is only a dispatch, a project, and not already the real thing." If it had been learned that one of your squadrons was anchored in the port of Casablanca the people would have danced with joy because the significance of this move
would have been understood.

We are entering the crux of the drama. Life here becomes more painful each day, and German pressure more rigorous. The last vestiges of independence which existed in the free zone are about to disappear. It is seen every day in the radio, in the press, which is abominable, and which is the despair of everyone.

I assure you that this sinking into Nazi slavery is something abominable, the fate which awaits all Europe. This is why 300,000,000 Christians cry, with all their energy, S.O.S. to the Americans.

Yours most sincerely devoted,
W. d'Ormesson.


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Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Sermon Delivered by Bishop Clemens 7/13/41

Document:
Translation
ADF
SERMON DELIVERED BY BISHOP CLEMENS
AUGUST COUNT OF GALEN ON JULY 13, 1941,
AT THE CHURCH OF ST. LAMBERT, MUENSTER i.W.
---------------------------------------------
My dear Catholics of St. Lambert:
Today I had intended to speak my personal episcopal message from the pulpit of the town and market church concerning the events of the past week,and especially to express my very deep sympathy to my former congregation. The devastation and losses have been particularly great in certain parts of the parish of St. Lambert's, though also in other parts of the town. I hope that some of the istress will be alleviated by the efforts of the municipal and state authorities and also by your brotherly love and the results of today's collections for the Charitable Fund and the Parish charity.
I had made up my mind to speak a few words aout the purpose of these visitations, how God tries by this means to call us back to Himself. God wants to call Munster to him. How truly our forefathers were at home with God and in God's holy Church! How entirely their lives were borne up byfaith in God, led by the fear and the love of God, bublic life as well as family and society life! Has it been thus in our own days? God wants to fetch Munster home to Himself!
I had meant to speak to you on these lines today but I must leave that aside now, for I find it necessary to speak here pblicly for another matter,a terrible occurrence which overtook us yesterday at the end of this week of horror.
The whole of Munster is still beneath the shadow of the terrible devastationwhich the outside enemy and opponent in war has caused us during the past week, and yesterday, on July 12, 1941, the secret Police took possession of the two settlements of the Society of Jesus, the Jesuit Order in our town, Haus Sentmaring on the Weselerstrasse, and the Ignatiushaus in the Konigstrasse, drove the inmates out of their property, forced the priests and brothers immediately on the same day to leave not only our town, but also the provinces of Westphalia and Rhineland. And the same hard fate was yesterday imposed also on the Sisters in the Steinfurtherstrasse. Their house too was confiscated and they must leave Westphalia and Munster by 6 this evening. The houses and properties of the Order with inventory were taken over for the "Gauleitung" of Northern Westphalia.
So now the storming of the monasteries, which has already raged long in the Ostmark, in South Germany, in the newly acquired territories, in the Warthegau, in Luxemburg, in Lorraine and in other parts of the counrty, has broken out here in Westphalia. We must expect such alarming items of news to pile up in the next few days, when one monastery after another is confiscated by the Gestapo, when its inmates, our brothers and sisters, children of our families, faithful German citizens, are thrown into the streets like worthless rascals, chased from the country like criminals, and at that time when all the trembles before new night attacks which kill us all, which can make every one of us homeless refugees; then innocent, highly respected men and women beloved by many are driven out of their modest possessions, and German citizens, our fellow townsmen in Munster, are turned into homeless refugees.
Why? I was told: for state-political reasons! No further reasons were given. Not one inhabitant of these monasteries has been accused of any offense, or brought before law or condemned. And if any one were guilty, then let him be brought before the law. But should the innocent also be punished?
I ask you, before those whose eyes the Jesuit brothers and the sisters of the immaculate have for years led their quiet lives devoted only to the honor of God and the welfare of their fellow human beings: who thinks these men and women guilty of any punishable offense? Who dares to bring an accusation against them? Let him who dares, prove it. Not even the Gestapo has brought such an accusation, let alone a court of justice. I bear witness here publicly as Bishop to whom is entrusted the supervision of the Orders, that I have the greatest respect for the quiet, unassuming Missionary Sisters of Wilkinhege who are today being driven out. They were founded by my very honored episcopal friend and fellow countryman the Bishop Amandus Bahlmann, who started the Order mainly for the Mission in Brazil, in which he, earning the gratitude of Germans in Brazil, worked untiringly up to the time of his death three years ago.
I bear witness as a German man and as bishop that I have the greatest respect and admiration for the Jesuit Order which I have known from my earliest youth and for 50 years from close observation; that I shall be bound to the Society of Jesus, my teachers and friends, in love and gratitude until my last breath, and that I have an even greater admiration for them now in this moment when Christ's prophecy to His disciples is again being fulfilled: "As they have persecuted me, so they will persecute you also. If you were of this world, the world would love its own, but because you are not of this world, but I have chosen you from the world, therefore the world hates you."
So I greet you with deep love from this place in the name of all faithful Catholics of the town of Munster and the Bishopric of Munster, as those chosen by Christ and hated by the world, as you go out into undeserved banishment.
May God reward them for all the good they have done for us! May God not punish us and our town for the unjust treatment and banishment which has been meeted out to his disciples. May almighty God bring back our beloved brothers and sisters.
My dear diocesans! Because of the terrible visitations which have come upon us through enemy attacks, I meant to be silent in public over other recent measures taken by the Gestapo, which call for my public protest. But if the Gestapo takes no consideration for the events which make hundreds of our fellow citizens homeless, if just at this time they continue to throw innocent citizens into the streets and drive them from the country, then I can no longer hesitate to utter my just protest and earnest warning.
Often in recent times we have had the experience that Gestapo robbed innocent and highly respected Germans of their freedom without any sentence, drove them out of their homes and interned them somewhere. Within the last few weeks two of my closest advisors, members of the Chapter of our Cathedral, were suddenly fetched from their homes, taken away from Munster and banished to far away places where they were told to stay permanently. I have had no answer whatsoever to my protests to the Minister of State. But this much could be established by means of telephone inquiries from the Gestapo:
there is no suspiciom or accusatiom of any punishable act on the part of either of the members of the Cathedral Chapter. They have been punished by banishment without any guilt on their part, without any accusation or the possibility to defend thenselves. Christians, listen carefully. It has been officially confirmed to us that no accusation of any punishable act is made against the members of the Chapter, Vorwerk and Echelmeyer.. They have done nothing punishable, and yet they are punished with banishment.
And why? Because I have done something which did not please the Government. At the four appointments to the Cathedral Chapter in the last two years the Government informed me in three instances that the nominations were not acceptable. Because according to the Prussian Concordat of 1929 intervention on the part of the Government is specifically excluded, I completed the nominations in two out of the four cases. If it is thought that I have acted against the law, let me be brought before the law. I am certain that no independent German Court will be able to condemn me for my actions in filling the vacancies.
Is it for this reason that not a court of justice but the Gestapo, whose activities in Germany are fortunately not subject to any legal examination, have been used? Every German citizen is entirely unprotected and defenceless in face of the physical superiority of the Gestapo- entirely defenceless and unprotected. That is a thing that my fellow Germans have discovered in recent years, as for instance our beloved teacher of religion, Friedrichs, who is held captive without trial and without sentence. Thus the two gentlemen of the Chapter who are in exile and thus also the members of our Orders, who yesterday and today have suddenly been driven out of their property and out of town and country.
No one of us is sure, however faithful and conscientious a citizen he may be and however convince he may be of his own innocence, that he will not one day be fetched from his home, deprived of his liberty and locked up in the cellars and concentration camps of the Gestapo.
I am quite clear about that, it may happen to me, today, any day. Because I shall then no longer be able to speak publicly, I want today to give a public warning against continuing on this path which, according to my firm conviction, will bring God's judgment on humanity misery and will lead to misery and destruction for our people and our country.
If I protest against these measures and punishments by the Gestapo, if I publicly demand an end to these conditions and a juridical examination or the withdrawal of these Gestapo measures, then I am only doing what the Governor General, Minister of State Dr. Frank, did when he wrote in February of this year in the publication of the Academy for German Justice-- "We want that dependable balance of internal order which will not allow the penal code to be debased to absolute authoritarianism of the power to prosecute against the accused who is already condemned from the beginning and deprived of every means of defence. The law must give the individual the legal possibility of defence, of explaining the cirmmstances of the deed and thereby of security against arbttrariness and injustice...., otherwise it is better not to speak of a penal code, but of penal force. It is impossible to combine the idea of the Building of Justice with that of condemnation without any manner of defence..... It is our task, like others, to represent authority in every form, and to give expression to the fact that we have to defend courageously the authority of justice as an important part of a lasting power." Thus wrote the Minister of State , Dr. Hans Frank. I am fully aware that I, as bishop and as exponent and defender of divinely appointed justice and moral order, which gives to each individual those original rights and that liberty before which it is God's will that all human opposition must cease; that I, like Minister Frank, am called to defend courageously the authority of justice and to condemn the undefended condemnation of innocent people as an injustice that cries out to Heaven. Christians! The imprisionment of many innocent people without the opportunity of defence and without a court sentence; the case of two members of the Cathedral Chapter who have been deprived of their liberty; the dissolution of the monasteries and the banishment of the innocent members of their orders, our brothers and sisters; all these things cause me today to recall publicly the old truth: "Justitia est fundeamentum regnorum", justice is the only secure foundation of every form of government.
The right to live, to be unmolested, the right to liberty is an indispensable part of every ordered community life. Certainly the State is justified in limiting this right of its citizens by way of punishment; but this authority the State only has vis-a-vis offenders against the law whose guilt can be proved by means of impartial legal proceedings. The state which oversteps this divinely willed limit and allows or causes the punishment of innocemt, people, undermines its own authority and every regard for its sovereignty in the minds of the citizens.
Unfortunately during the last few years we have repeatedly had to observe that more or less heavy penalties,mostly in the form of deprtvation of liberty were imposed without any crime having been proved against the victims by a regular legal procedure, and without their being given the opportunity to defend their rights or to prove their innocence.
How many Germans are languishing in police detention or concentration camps, who were ejected from their homes, Who were never condemned by a public court or who, after being aequitted by a court or after serving the sentence imposed by the court, have again been taken into custody by the Gestapo and held captive. How many have been driven out of their home and out of the place where they work: I recall again the Reverend Bishop of Rottenburg, Johannes Baptista Sproll, an old man of 70 years, who recently had to celebrate his 25-years jubilee as bishop far from his diocese, because three years ago the Gestapo turned him out, of his bishopric.
I once more the two members of our Cathedral Chapter, the Reverend Gentlemon Vorwerk mad Echelmeyer. I recall our most honoured teacher of religion, Friedrichs who is languishing in a concentration camp. I will refrain from merit toning any further names today. The name of an evangelical man, who risked his life for Germany as a German officer and submarine commander during the World War, and who has for years been deprived of his liberty, is well known to all of you, and we have the greatest regard for the bravery and relgious courage of this noble German. (Pastor Niemoller is meant-remark of the copier) From this example you can see, my Christians, that it is not merely a Catholic concern about which I speak to you publicly today, but a Chritian, yes a human and national, a religious matter. "Justice is the foundation of States"! We observe with great sorrow today how the foundation is being shaken, how justice, how natural and Christian virtue, indispensable for the ordered existence of every human community is not being preserved and held up unmistakably recognizable for all. Not only because of the rights of the church, not only for the right of human personality, but also for love of our nation and in deep concern for our country, we ask, we demand: "Justice"! Who would not fear for the exisistence of a house when he sees the foundations being undermined? "Justice is the foundation of states"! Only when the possessors of state power bow in reverence before the royal majesty of Justice and use the sword of retribution only in the service of Justice; only then can the power of the State stand with sincerity and the chance of lasting success before the illegal use of force by those who are accidentally the stronger, before the suppression of the weaker and their debasement to unworthy servitude. That holder of office will be able to count on an honest, following and the free service of honorable men, whose measures and Judgments prove themselves in the light of unbiased opinion to be far from all arbitrariness and weighed by the incorruptible scales of Justice.
Therefore the practice of condemnation and punishment without the chance of defence, without sentence, "the undefended damnation of those who are already condemned beforehand", as Minister of State Frank called it, creates a feeling of being without rights, and a mental attitude of fearfulhess and servile cowardice, which in the long run must ruin the character of a nation and tear up its feeling of unity.
This is the conviction and the sorrow of all right-minded German men and women. This was openly and courageously expressed by a high official of the law in the year 1937 in the -Reichsverwaltungsblatt". He wrote:- "The greater the absolute power of an authority, the greater is the need for a guarantee of unimpeachable dealings; because errors are felt more heavily, and the danger of abitrariness and wrong use is greater.
If recourse to/Justice (administrative) is excluded, there must in every case be a regular way for unbiased control, so that there can be no feeling of lack of rights, which in any case would be bound in the long run to harm the feelings of national unity.
This recourse to/Justice (administrative) is excluded in the penal measures of the Gestapo. As none of us know of any means for the unbiased control of the measures taken by the Gestapo, of their limitations of liberty, their prohibitions of residence, their arrests and their imprisonment of German citizens in concentration cemps, therefore in the furthest parts of the German nation a feeling of lack of rights, yes, of cowardly fear, has already taken hold, which is causing great harm to German national unity.
The obligations of my episcopal office to protect moral order, and the obligation of the oath which I took before God and the representative of the Reich Government in which I promised to prevent with all my power any harm which might threaten the German State, force me in face of the deeds of the Gestapo to pronounce this fact in a public warning.
My Christians: It may be said against me that by this frank speech I am weakening the internal Front of the German people now in this time of war.
In reply I state: It is not I who am the cause of any weakening of the internal front, but those who, regardless of war, regardless of external tribulation, here in Munster at the end of a terrile week of grim enemy attacks, impose heavy punishment on innocent citizens without sentence and without the chance to defend themselves, robbing our fellow-countrymen, our brothers and sisters, of their property, throwing them into the street and hunting them from the country! They destroy the security of Right they undermine the consciousness of right, they destroy faith in the government of our State! I therefore, in the name of the upright German people, in the name of the Majesty of Justice, in the interests of peace and the unity of the internal front, raise my voice; therefore I call aloud as a German man, as an honourable citizen, as representative of the Christian religion, as a Catholic bishop: We demand Justice!
If this call remains unheard, than the reign of Queen Justice will not be restored, then our German nation and country will go to pieces through inner putrefaction and rotting, inspite of the heroism of our soldiers and their glorious victories!
Let us pray for all who are in need, especially for the exiled members of our Religious orders, for our town of Munster, that God may withhold further trials from us, for our German nation and country and for its Leader- Our Father.......


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Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: unspecified note re: Holy See 7/41

Document:


In view of the fact that the Holy See is endeavoring to offer every possible spirtual and moral assistance to those who are suffering from the unfortuante consequnces of this war, it would deeply appreciate any representations which might be made by the United States Commission now in Moscow to the competent Authorities there with a view to bringing about an understanding of this charitable mission and a helpful cooperation on the part of all concerned - especially to assure that prisioners in Russian hands will be afforded adequate religious and moral assistance.
The information Bureau of the Vatican, which has enjoyed some success in securing comforting information of soldiers for their distressed families, would likewise be most appreciative of any steps taken by the Commission in Moscow to assure an active participation of the compeent Authorities
in this most imprtant work. A relaxation of present restrictions would be of inestimable assistane to the Holy See and would most certainly serve to quite the dreadful anxieties of thousands of families which awit some news of fathers and sons. If Father Braun, an American priest in charge of the Church of St. Louis in Moscow, were to be called upon in this regard, he would, no doubt, be of great assistance.
These charitable endeavors of the Holy See are prompted bya sincere desire to be of utmost assistance to men of all nations in these difficult and trying days of war and are not intended to interfere with or hamper in any way the undertakings of othe organizations. Consequently steps have been taken to provide for Russian prisoners the same services which are now requested for prisoners in Russia.


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Document name: Telephone Message from Taylor to FDR 8/30/41

Document:
Locust Valley, L.I.
August 30, 1941

Telephone message to the President
From Myron Taylor...

As indicated on the telephone this morning, I asked Archbishop Mooney and Msgr. Ready if they would in a very brief statement indicate to me the substance of our conversation, and suggest a remedy for the situation that they described.
I have no received the following confidential statement: It is evident that the announced policy of aid to Russia creates a delicate situation in the United States. This is particularly true in regard to the reaction created in the minds of the Catholic Citizens. The irreconcilable opposition between atheistic Communism and Catholicity is of course well known.
It was indeed heartening that Mr. Wells in announcing this policy made it utterly clear that it involved no sympathy on the part of our government with Communist ideology, but this statement of principle, or even its frequent reiteration will hardly be sufficient to meet the situation as it actually exists. One of its most dificult phases is the opposition to our Governments policy in all the elements of our population grouped around the America First Committee, and their willingness to exploit to the full every possible source of support.
The Catholic groups concerned have been quick to utilize an apparently clear and pertinent statement in the Encyclical of Pope Pius XI on Atheistic Communism:
"Communism is intrinsically wrong, and no one who would save Christian civilization may collaborate with it in any undertaking whatsoever."
The discriminating mind might argue from the context that this statement refers to the domestic rather than the international field. Those who are using the statement , however, are clever enough to attack any distinctions made in its regard as a compromise in principle and failure to accept a clear pronouncement of Papal authority.
This is the line follwed by the Brooklyn Tablet, and some other Diocesan papers. This again is particulary expolited by "Social Justice", which is not in any sense a Catholic paper, because not subject to ecclesiastical authority, but does actually reach and influence many Catholics of a particularly emotional type.
One might say, why does not some bishop or some group of bishops take definite measures to counteract what is fast becoming a widesread movement of opposition to our national policy, and therefore a serious threat to the unity of mind and endeavor urgently necessary at this time?
The difficulty, of course, is that any academic of unoffical interpretation of the Papal statement in question bids fair to creat a definite and disastrous cleavave in Catholic ranks, both clerical and lay. This is particularly true in view of the clever but hardly praisworthy tactics to which the above-named opposition will inevitably resort.
The one thing that would make impossible any further expoitation of the Pope's statement for partisan interests and disruptive purposes would be some word or gesture on the part of the Holy Father himself that will evidently show wheter or not their argument is in accord with the mind of the Holy See.


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Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Hull-->FDR 8/30/41

Document:
Mr. Myron Taylor is sailing Sept.4,1941
DEPARTMENT OF STATE
WASHINGTON

August 30, 1941

My dear Mr. President:

I enclose two draft letters to the Pope to be carried by Mr. Taylor in accordance with the instructions you gave Mr. Welles.

Faithfully yours,

{Cordell Hull}
Enclosures:
Two draft letters
addressed to the
Pope.

The President

The White House.


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Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR-->Pope 9/3/41

Document:
{Sept. 3, 1941}

Your Holiness:

I am glad to say that Mr. Myron Taylor is now well enough to undertake to resume his duties as my personal representative to Your Holiness.

I have requested him to return to Rome in order that he may have the opportunity of renwing the relationship established through his mission
last year.

Believe me, with the assurance of my highest regard,

Yours very sincerely,

His Holiness
Pope Pius XII
Vatican City.


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Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR-->Pope 9/3/41

Document:
{Sept. 3, 1941}


Your Holiness:

At my request, Mr. Myron Taylor will discuss with Your Holiness certain matters with regard to which I am very desirous that he explain my feelings and American opinion. These are matters in regard to which I feel very strongly.

The first of these relates to the problem of the attitude of the Russian Government and the Russian people toward Religion. In so far as I am informed, churches in Russia are open. I believe that ther is a real possibility that Russia may as a result of the present conflict recognize freedom of religion on Russia, although, of course, without recognition of
any official intervention on the part of any church in education or political matters within Russia. I feel that if this can be accomplished it will put the possibility of the restoration of real religious liberty in Russia on a much better footing than religious freedom is in Germany today.

There are in the United States many people in all churches who have the feeling that Russia is governed completely by a communistic form of society. In my opinion, the fact is that Russia is governed by a dictatorship as rigid in its manner of being as is the dictatorship in Germany. I believe, however, that this Russian dictatorship is less dangerous to the saftey of other nations then is the German form of dictatorship. The only weapon which the Russian dictatorship uses outside of its own boarders is communist propaganda which I, of course, recognize has in the past been utilized for the purpose of breaking down the form of government in other countries, religious belief, et cetera. Germany, however, not only has utilized, but is utilizing, this kind of propaganda as well and has also undertaken the employment of every form of military aggression outside of its borders for the purpose of world conquest by the force of arms and by the force of propaganda. I believe that the survival of Russia is less dangerous to religion, to the church as such, and to humanity in general then would be the survival of the German form of dictatorship. Furthermore, it is my belief that the leaders of all churches in the United States should recognize thses facts clearly and should not close their eyes to these basic questions and by their present attitude on this question directly assist Germany in her present ogjectives.

Bearing in mind the common desire which Your Holiness and I share that a firm basis for lasting concord between man and nations founded on the principles of Christianity can again be established, I have asked Mr. Taylor to explain my feelings in this matter in order that Your Holiness may inderstand my position in this respect.

Believe me, with the accurances of my highest regard.
Yours very sincerely,


His Holiness
Pope Pius XII
Vatican City.


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Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Pope-->FDR typewritten draft (nd)

Document:
{9-20-41}


Personal

To His Excellency
Franklin D. Roosevelt
President of the United States of America

We have received with satisfaction and plasure your esteemed letter of September third and We gladly avail Ourselves of the return to Washington of His Excellency Mr. Myron C. Taylor to forward to you this note of cordial acknowledgement.

We learned with gratification of the coming of your Personal Representative, who has always been a devoted and conscientious bearer of tidings from your
Excellency and who remains a welcome link between you and Us.

Mr. Taylor has called upon us several times and We have been very happy to receive him on each occasion. He has presented to Us a full exposition of those matters which are uppermost in the mind of your Excellency at the present time and he has graciously informed Us of your persoanl feelings and of the general sentiment of your people. We, in turn, have expressed to Mr. Taylor Our point of view regarding the important matters which were dealt with in our conversations. He has assured Us that, upon his return to Washington, he will give Your Excellency an accurate report in this regard. It is Our constant prayer and sincere hope that Almighty God may hasten the day when man and nations now at war will enjoy the blessings of a true ad enduring peace--a peace in which We confidently foresee embodied those fundamental Christian principles, whose application alone can assure the victory of love over hate, right over might, justice over egoism, and in which the search for eternal values will pervail over the quest for merely temporal goods. Meanwhile, We find Ourselves, however face to face with all the forces at our disposal, to bring material and spiritual comfort to countless thousands who are numbered amongst the innocent and helpless victims. We should like, on this occasion, to express to Your Excellency Our codial appreciation of the magnificent assistance which the American People have given, and continue to offer, in this mission of mercy. They are, indeed, demonstrating once again a charitable understanding of the needs of their suffering fellowmen and a noble desire to alleviate their misery.

In reassuring to you of Our ceaseless and untiring efforts in the cause of peace, We renew to your Excellency the expression of Our heartfelt good wishes, with a fervent prayer for the personal welfare of your Excellency and for the prosperity of the cherished people of the United States.

From the Vatican, September 20th, 1941
Pius PP XII


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Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Pope-->FDR final draft 9/20/41

Document:
{9-20-41}

[in script]
Personal

To His Excellency
Franklin D. Roosevelt
President of the United States of America

We have received with satisfaction and plasure your esteemed letter of September third and We gladly avail Ourselves of the return to Washington of His Excellency Mr. Myron C. Taylor to forward to you this note of cordial acknowledgement.

We learned with gratification of the coming of your Personal Representative, who has always been a devoted and conscientious bearer of tidings from your Excellency and who remains a welcome link between you and Us.

Mr. Taylor has called upon us several times and We have been very happy to receive him on each occasion. He has presented to Us a full exposition of those matters which are uppermost in the mind of your Excellency at the present time and he has graciously informed Us of your persoanl feelings and of the general sentiment of your people. We, in turn, have expressed to Mr. Taylor Our point of view regarding the important matters which were dealt with in our conversations. He has assured Us that, upon his return to Washington, he will give Your Excellency an accurate report in this regard.

It is Our constant prayer and sincere hope that Almighty God may hasten the day when man and nations now t war will enjoy the blessings of a true ad enduring peace--a peace in which We confidently foresee embodied those fundamental Christian principles, whose application alone can assure the victory of love over hate, right over might, justice over egoism, and in which the search for eternal values will pervail over the quest for merely temporal goods. Meanwhile, We find Ourselves, however face to face with
all the forces at our disposal, to bring material and spiritual comfort to countless thousands who are numbered amongst the innocent and helpless victims. We should like, on this occasion, to express to Your Excellency Our codial appreciation of the magnificent assistance which the American People have given, and continue to offer, in this mission of mercy. They are, indeed, demonstrating once again a charitable understanding of the needs of their suffering fellowmen and a noble desire to alleviate their misery.

In reassuring to you of Our ceaseless and untiring efforts in the cause of peace, We renew to your Excellency the expression of Our heartfelt good wishes, with a fervent prayer for the personal welfare of your Excellency and for the prosperity of the cherished people of the United States.

From the Vatican, September 20th, 1941
{Pius PP XII}


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Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Memorandum for the President 9/2/41

Document:
The White House
Washington


September 2, 1941.


MEMORANDUM FOR THE PRESIDENT


Mr. Myron Taylor's secretary telephoned to say that Mr. Taylor has prepared the following statement which he will give to the press if you approve of it:

"President Roosevelt has requested me to return to Rome, to resume conferences with His Holiness, the Pope.

To be the instrument of contact between the Pope as a great spiritual leader and the President of the greatest of the liberty-loving nations not engaged in war, necessitates a reserve of expression which is no great innovation to me.

In the final unfolding of the mysteries which the ppresent day questions contain, there can be no fair or permanent justice in the world unless these two symbols of civilization at its best operate in harmony".


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Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Telegram to FDR from Taylor 9/9/41

Document:
telegram /cablegram

WESTERN UNION

1941 sep 9 pm /02

NB 683 VIA RCA=CD Barcelona 12 9 1400


To the President=
Hyde Park New York State=

Ninth leaving for Rome=
Myron Taylor.


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Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Memorandum for Cordell Hull 9/12/41

Document:
The White House
Washington


September 12, 1941

Memorandum for Cordell Hull:

What do you Think?

F.D.R.


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Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: letter re: British Bombing Forces 9/17/41

Document:
According to a B.B.C. broadcast from London August 24th,

the Commander of the British bombing forces stated that they intend to bomb even Rome, since they entertain no false sentiments. The Secretariat of State has pointed out to Mr. Osborne and to Mr. Tittmann that, if the Vatican City State or if any of the basilicas, churches or pontifical buildings and institutions in Rome (and they are very numerous and of very great historical and artistic importance ) were to be hit, the Holy See could not remain silent. Nor would it be well that, with cordial relations existing between the Holy See and England, anything should happen to modify or disturb them. Mr. Tittmann gave assurance that he would bring the matter to the attention of the American Government which would doubtlessly appreciate the importance and gravity of the matter.

September 17, 1941.


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Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Memorandum Burton Y. Berry -Taylor 9/20/41

Document:
The Food Situation in Greece

A Memorandum Requested by Mr. Taylor.

Greece today is dangerously near starvation. The people urgently need wheat, rice, sugar and fats. The Axis occupation of Greece has interrupted the normal shipments of supplies from abroad. Axis military authorities prohibit the natural flow of foodstuffs, notably olive oil, from the islands and the producing centers on the mainlamd to the markets. The presence of large numbers of Axis troops in Greece, who are fed primarily off of the country, is a heavy drain upon the small existing stocks of food.
All of this adds up to widespread suffering among the people.When I left Athens on September 15th, Bread was the only food that could be bought with ration cards at the legal price. Each adult is entitled to 60 drams of bread daily. Normally each adult Greek eats 400 drams of bread daily (2.8 pounds). In Greece bread is literally the staff of life. When it is wanting there is privation since there is no available substitute.
For weeks now no foodstuffs other than bread could be bought with ration cards at legal prices. There are other foodstuffs for sale but they are sold on an uncontrolled market which is locally known as " the black bourse." This is a curbstone or pushcart market. It is tacitly accepted by the government and protected by the police. To it go all who buy food who are
willing to pay the exorbitant prices asked. Those who buy are principally Germans and Italians, civilians and troops, and the people who work for them. High
prices are of little import for these people as both the Axis partners print and force the circulation of their own currency in Greece. Thus "the Black bourse," while available to all, really provides only the conquerors of Greece with sufficient food.

The remedy is not money but supplies of food. Of course the distribution of cash among the Greeks would give them a means of competing with their unwanted guests. But with more money available, and the supply of foodstuffs diminishing, prices would certainly rise. And on a price market the Greeks will be at an immense disadvantage for the duration of the occupation. The hope of all Greeks is for supplies from abroad. These can be bought in Turkey and sent to Greece in some of the diesel-powered caiques which carry a large part of the commerce on the Aegean Sea. Small boats carrying small shipments to many ports in Greece will simplify the problem of distribution.

The management of the distribution must be under the control of persons who are nationals of neutral countries. This will not prevent the Axis authorities from breaking their promises to respect the food importations but it will provide a means of transmitting information to the outside world when promises are broken. An American observer, preferably one with no past experience in relief work in Greece, can fill a useful role. The Greek Red Cross, in
spite of its short-comings, offers the best agency for actual distribution.

(Signed) BURTON Y. BERRY.
Burton Y. Berry

Rome, Italy.
September 20, 1941.


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Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: letter re: Religion in Russia 9/20/41

Document:
According to information received very recently, His
Excellency the lost Rev. Edward Profittlich, Titular Archbishop of Adrianopolts, Apostolic Administrator in Esthonia, was subjected, June 28, 1941, to a minute search and then deported together with other persons, of rank, to the Ural Mountains.

If a considerate and timely intervention could be made in favor of His Excellency Mons. Profitfilch, in order that he be released from the discomforts of deportation and given his liberty, it would be greatly appreciated.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Personal data regarding H.E. Mons. Edward Profittlich.

Mons. Profittlich, of German origin (born in 1890 at Birresdorf) had been exercising the sacred ministry in Esthonia since 1930. In 1931 he was named Apostolic Administrator and in 1935, for the sole purpose of increasing his usefullness to the Church, he requested and obtained Esthonian Citizenship. In 1936 he was consecrated Titular Archbishop of Adrianopolis.
His labors to further the progress of Catholicism in Esthonia were indefatigable and his work was regarded with sympathy and approval even in governmental circles. Last year after the occupation ef Esthonia by Russian troops, although he could have left the country, he insisted upon remaining at his post of labor and responsibility, solely to offer assistance and spiritual comfort to the faithful.

September 20th, 1941.


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Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Religious Situation in Russia 9/20/41

Document:
RELIGIOUS SITUATION IN R U S S I A

The religious persecution has not diminished during the year 1940 and the first semester of the current year.


1. The only Catholic church now open in Moscow, the Church of St. Louis, enjoys the protection of the French Embassy and is under the direction of Father Leopold Braun, an American citizen; it is frequented by the Catholic diplomats accredited to Moscow.
notwithstanding these facts, this church, in the course of a few months, was violated five times by nocturnal thefts and sacrilegious profanations, and this in spite of the fact that the church is situated directly in front of the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs, which is always guarded by the police. Only when diplomatic representatives especially the Embassy of the United States of America-made official representations to the Soviet Authorities, did the police decide to take an interest in the matter, and it was then very easy to track down and arrest the guilty parties, - "professional thieves", in the words of the People's Commissariat for Foreign Affairs, in a note to the American Embassy, dated March 18, 1941- and recover a large part of the stolen goods.

2. In Leningrad, only one Catholic church is open; it is cared for by a priest who is a French citizen, but who has been forbidden to preach in the Russian language.

3.In the other cities of Russia, practically no edifice devoted to Catholic worship is now open: at Smolensk the church was converted into an archive, at Astrakan, into a granary, at Kamieniec into a cinema.


4. To effect the closing of the churches, the Soviet Authorities adopt, among other methods, that of imposing extremely heavy taxes, which the faithful are unable to pay. For example, at Charkow they began by declaring that the sacred edifice was in need of repairs and by demanding that, for the collection of the necessary funds, subscriptioms be pledged by name- in order to terrorize the faithful; finally, a few months ago, they proceeded to close the church permanently, notwithstanding the fact that all the strict legislative demands had been observed by the Catholics.

5. In some places the few churches which still remain open cannot be cared for by priests, even though the latter have returned from exile or prison.

6. In the space of a little more than a year, word has been received of the death- in exile or in prison - of at least sixteen ecclesiastics: a very high figure when considered in proportion to the extremely limited number of priests resident in Russia. There is no information concerning many other ecclesiastics, detained in Siberia or similar desolate regions.

The very few who have obtained their freedom are scarcely ever granted permissions to exercise the sacred ministry; on the other hand, legislative dispositions impose upon ecclesiastics a tax of forty percemt of their income.

7. Actually, in all of Russia , - understood her as in all cases where it has been mentioned previously, within the political confines existing September I, 1939- there is not a single Catholic bishop.

8. Likewise, in the territory of the U.R.S.R. - within the confines, indicated above- no Catholic religious publication is in circulation.

9. The Soviet Authorities have begun to apply the same program of bolshevization and dechristianization in the Baltic, Polish and Roumanian territories occupied and annexed by the U.R.S.S. since September 1939. Because of the resistance of the people, the application of this program is being effected gradually.

All acts of worship have been restricted to churches and sacred places.

The Catholic press and religious instruction in the schools have been suppressed.

Bishops have been obliged to abandon their residences and to live in small and insufficient quarters: for example, the Archbishop of Riga was allowed only a single room measuring twelve square meters;.the Bishop of Liepaja was forced te leave his home and find living quarters outside the city; the Archbishop Apostolic Administrator of Esthonia, at Tallin, was obliged to pay a monthly rent of 160 rubles for a single room, which had been his own property.

Curial and seminary buildings were requisitioned and ecclesiastical property almost everywhere was confiscated. High taxes were imposed for the permission to keep churches open.

Numerous priests and religious were imprisoned, and some were deported to Russia.

10. Ecclesiastics were deported and killed especially after the beginning of the Russo-German war- and particularly when the Russian troops were obliged to evacuate the Baltic, Polish and Roumanian territories which they had previously occupied.

Word has just been received to the effect that His Excellency Archbishop Edward Profittlich, Apostolic Administrator of Esthonia, was arrested in Tallin June 28th, 1941, after very thorough perquisition, and was deported by the Russians to
the Ural Mountains.

It is known that the Bolsheviks deported some thirty ecclesiastics from Latvia; grave fears are entertained for the fate of these men.

From Lithuania fourteen were deported; and twenty-one were certainly killed there, - some of them after having been subjected to atrocious torments: they were, for instance, bound to a cross, the mark of a cross burned into their foreheads and chests, their entrails torn from their
bodies while they were still living.

From Galizia some seventy ecclesiastics were deported or killed; some of them barbarously murdered, - placed on a cross, and nails driven into their heads.

After the beginning of hostilities with Germany the Soviets tried - by corrupting the servant- to poison the Bishop of Stanislaopoli, H.E. Mons. Gregory Chomyszyn, and his Auxiltary, H.E. Mens. John Latysevskyj.

11. At Cernauti a Catholic church was closed June 22nd, the day on which the Russo-German conflict broke out, and remained closed to worshipers for two weeks- that is, until the evacuation of the Russian troops from the city.

Though not complete, this list of facts confirms the presence of an anti-religious attitude amongst the Bolsheviks, at least until a few weeks ago.


September 20th, 1941


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Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Memorandum from Taylor 9/20/41

Document:
Strictly personal memorandum giving summary of considerations expressed by H.E. Mons. Tardini in conversation with H. E.

Mr. Myron C. Taylor.


1. At present Europe is faced with two great dangers: Nazism and Communism. Both are opposed to religion, to Christian civilization, to personal liberty, to peace. At the present moment Nazism is better organized and boasts greater strength.

2. If the war now in progress were to mean the end of both dangers, a period of tranqutllity would be possible for Europe. If even one of these evils - Communism, for example -were to remain an active force, Europe would, within a few years, be in a situation identical with that in which it finds itself today. In fact, Communism, once victorious, would find
no further resistance in Continental Europe and would spread among the germanic peoples, the slav races and finally among the latins. In consequence, within the space of a few years there would be an enormous Communistic bloc, whose inevitable destiny it would be te provoke a war with England and America, regarded by the Communists as a capitalistic bloc.

3. For the clarification of the above it is well to bear in mind; -
a) that Communism has always proftted by the discontent of the people in moments of difficulty. Certainly, with the end of the war, Europe will experience a period of great difficulty and unrest among the germanic, slav and latin peoples;
b) that Communism is committed not only to a program of expansion through propaganda but also to a very real and unmistakable program of military aggression. This is proved by the invasion of Poland, Esthonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania and Bessarabia;
c) that Communism cannot renounce its struggle against religion and Christian civilization because it has as its fundamental principle that Capitalism must be destroyed and that religion is but the opium with which Capitalism has drugged the proletariat. Therefore, for the Communists the proposal to destroy "Capitalistic civilization (a term which they use to
include Christian civilization) is an immediate consequence;
d) that Communism, notwithstanding its pacifist claims, pursues a program which is eminently militaristic, a fact which has been demonstrated by the immense war preparations which Communism has made, unknown to all, and which have been revealed in the present Russo-German war.


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Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Extract of Speech delivered by M. Maisky, Soviet Ambassador 9/23/41

Document:
EXTRACT OF SPEECH DELIVERED BY M. MAISKY, SOVIET AMBASSADOR AT THE LUNCHEON OF THE AMERICAN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE HELD IN LONDON, SEPTEMBER 23, 1941

"But what is the essence of Hiterism? It is this: in the world there is only one master race, namely the Germans.They must rule, govern, exploit. All the rest- the French, Italians, Slavs, Chinese, British, American, etc., must be "subject races." They must be the slaves of the "master race", slaves in different degrees and categories, toiling under the whip of their slave-driver, for the benefit of their master. This is the essence of Hiterism. This is the essence of the "New Order" which Hitler is trying to force on Europe with fire and sword and which , should his European attempts succeed, he will force on other continents. Hence that non-stop aggression which Hiterr has been pursuing for many years and in the course of which he has brought to a fine art the conquest and subjection of his enemies one by one. Hence also his unlimited appetite and demands.
The Soviet people will fight to the last drop of blood against this "Nazi philosophy", if this can be called a philosophy. They will fight to the last drop of blood because this so-called "philosophy" is the direct challenge to all that we believe inand for what we stand. The Soviet Union stands for brotherhood and friendship betwee peoples, for the self-determination of nations. This principle it has carried and is carrying out both in its foreign relations and internal affairs. Within the framework of its peace policy th Soviet Union had always endeavoured and is endeavouring to establish friendly, good-neighbourly relations with all countries, irrespective of their internal regime. At the same time, within the Stalin Constitution of 1936 all national minorities in my country ( and there are many ) are assured complete freedom for national development.

The Soviet Union further recognises that the internal order in each State is its own concern. The Soviet Union also considers that religion is & private matter for each citizen. And here, in view of the many misconceptions on that particular point I would like to say a word or two on the religious situation in the Soviet Union.

In spite of what is thought by so many, religion in my country is not persecuted and every citizen has the right to believe or not to believe, according to his or her own conscience. Article 124 of the Stalin Constitution reads:

In order to ensure to citizens freedom of cornscience, the church in the U.S.S.R. is separated from the state, and the school from the church.

Freedom of religious worship and freedom of anti-religious propaganda is recognized for all citizens."

This article is quite clear and it is by no means a dead letter.

Indeed, in 1940, in the U.S.S.R. there were over 30,000 independent religious communities of every kind, over 8,000 Churches, and about 60,000 priests and Ministers of religion. Believers practice their religions freely, they frequent Services, the marry in Church, christen their children, have religious funerals, celebrate religious festivals, elect leaders of their conregations. overnment did not and does not support, any one religion in the U.S.S.R. but it puts at their disposal free of rent premises for religious observance, exempting all such premises from taxation. Soviet Courts of Law punish those who violate the rights of believers. Priests and Ministers of religion enjoy equal rights with all other citizens, in particular, they enjoy electoral rights to the Supreme Soviet and all other electoral institutions of the U.S.S.R. The Orthodox Church has the largest. number of followers and is divided at the present time into two chief sections: The "New Church" and "The Old Church", each of which has its own headquarters In Moscow. "The New Church" is headed by the Metropolitan Vitali, "The Old Church" is headed by the politan Sergius, who at the same time also performs the functions of Patriarch. "The Old Church" extends its influence also to other countries, in particular, to the United States.

It is represented there by Exarch of the Moscow Patriarch, Metropolitan Benjamin. In addition, there are various other groups and denominations im the U.S.S.R., such as Old Believers, Evangelists, Seventh Day Adventists, etc... Many of these denominations also have their headquarters in Moscow.

In general there is a considerable variety in the religious life of the U.S.S.R. and no obstacles are put in the way of their activities, as long as they remain in their natural sphere of their human conscience and faith.

I would like to mention here that in the new Polish Army which is being created now on the territory of the U.S.S.R., Roman Catholic chaplains are admitted to administer to the Forces, in accordance with the wishes of the Polish High Command.

However, let us return to the Soviet way of life. Side by side with assuring national and religious freedom the Soviet Union also stands for the raising of the standard of life and education of the wide masses of the people. It stands for the progress of science and art, for assuring to all the right to work and the right to leisure.

The Soviet Union and Hitlerite Germany represent two entirely antagonistic worlds and for this reason the Soviet people are fighting and will fight to the last drop of their blood against the perfidious attack of German fascism.


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Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: note re: confidential reports

Document:
Private and confidential reports from Myron Taylor on his return from
Rome, France and England, October 3, 1941


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Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Memorandum of Discussion with Ambassador Winant and Myron Taylor 9/27/41

Document:

MEMORANDUM OF DISCUSSION WITH AMBASSADOR WINANT AND MYRON TAXLOR, ESQ., ON THE IRISH SITUATION,
SEPTEMBER 27, 1941.

IRISH POLICY.

The Irish Government is irretrievably committed to it's present policy of neutrality. It desires that neutrality to be benevolent to the British, but is unwilling publicly to make any concessions looking to the common defense of the two islands.

Neutrality with Mr de Valera is not only a considered policy but a personal conviction very probably stemming from his sense of responsibility for dividing the Irish people in their civil war. He is resolved, no matter what happens, to keep the Irish people united for the remainder of his political life, and maintaining neutrality appears to be the most available means to this end in the present world situation. To what consequences it may lead, he is relatively indifferent. The farmers thus far have endorsed this policy because they have believe it meant high prices for agricultural products, as in the last war, and no serious deprivations. The industrialists also support him, largely because they fear the bombing of their plants. The hierarchy, generally speaking, support him on nationalistic grounds. They manifest no special concern over the fate of their co-religionists in Germany or Poland. The most intelligent bishop in Ireland reminded me recently that Britain and the United States should be grateful for neutrality as it was a very much more favorable attitude than might reasonably have been expected.

(Note: About two weeks ago I noted a distinct change in the Papal Nuncio's attitude to the British. It had become definitely more friendly, and he began to speak with admiration of Cardinal Hinsley, which he had not always done before. This may be significant in connection with Mr. Taylor's presence in Rome.)

It is very evident that nothing is to be hoped for in the way of air bases or ports either by the British or American Governments from the Irish Government, or any contribution to the war effort directed against Hitlerism.


AMERICAN POLICY TOWARD IRELAND.

The American viewpoint in considering Ireland must look with sympathy at the very natural desire of the Irish Government to avoid involvement in the war, and must appreciate the prevailing lack of sympathy throughout the Irish people with the British war effort in view of recent Irish history. However, desire to avoid involvement does not justify the blindness to the realities of the situation, which seems to characterize the Irish point of view, nor does it counteract certain moral weaknesses in the Irish position, to wit: (a) Mr. de Valera is obviously
trying to get a free ride, expecting, or at least hoping and trying, to be supplied by Britain or the United States without contributing to the security of sea-borne transport; (b) relying on international law in a jungle world but unwilling to make any contribution to the maintenance of international-law, he therefore appears to have no just basis for asking special consideration, and if his position as an Isolationist is respected, there seems to be no moral responsibility on either Britain or the United States to shield him from the inevitable consequences of isolation. The United States policy, therefore, should be dictated within the limits of justice and humanity by (1) the military considerations of the situation, (2) political conditions in the United States, and (3) political conditions in Ireland. This means refraining from a course which would consolidate the Irish Opposition behind the Government and force our actual and potential friends to support the Prime Minister.

(1) As regards military considerations, it seems probable, if not inevitable, that if and when the attack on Britain is made, Ireland will also be invaded. Mr. de Valera subscribes to this point, of view and presses, both the British and American Governments for armament on all occasions... He will, however, give no undertaking that he will not use these arms in the event that forceful seizure of ports and air bases were attempted. The question to be decided from the military poinnt of view is whether the Battle of the Atlantic can be won without such ports and bases.

If it becomes possible by longer range fighting planes to use bases now being developed in Northern Ireland and to dispense with ports and bases in Southern Ireland, the question would be much simplified for, in that case, Britain could give Mr de Valera an unqualified undertaking that under no circumstances would they invade him. The effect of this would probably be to foster pro-British sentiment and a freer attitude on the part of the Irish chiefs, which is not unfriendly now.

Without any official basis for my statements, I have pointed out to Mr. de Valera that it appeared to me that the British Government, being convinced that they were to receive no assistance for the Battle of the Atlantic from the Irish Government, had with the cooperation of the United States under the Lend-Lease Act, determined to make an invincible fortress out of the six counties with an adequate garrison, and in effect to leave Southern Ireland to depend entirely on its own resources in the case of invasion, except that if and when the military situation warranted it, an expeditionary force from the six counties would attack the enemy on Irish soil and attempt to destroy them. I also pointed out that the development of air termini in the north might obviate the desirability of using Foynes and that this might continue after the ending of the war. I have reason to believe that these possibilities occurred to the minds of Irish statesmen without the need of suggestion.
It must be clearly kept in mind that any attempt by the British to seize the ports would, unquestionably result in armed resistance which, even if not formidable, would result in bloodshed and a recrudescence of anti-British feeling which must also be counted upon to create disaffection among the 175,000 volunteers to the British forces from Southern Ireland. It is, therefore, a step which could only be justified in the face of a great emergency. A possibility of an American seizure of the ports I have ruled out because of American political conditions. If, however, political conditions in America warranted it, a carefully devised plan of occupation with the simultaneous providing for Irish defense and for Irish supplies could probably be executed without much bloodshed and with the ultimate approval of a great majority of the Irish people. In fact there is a great deal of evidence to support the view that such a step would be welcomed by a large majority of the Irish, producing, as it would, a sense of security and a warranty of uninterrupted supplies ..

The considerations affecting British military policy are, generally speaking, those which have just been discussed under the head of American military policy. There is one point, however, in which they differ. Upon the British rests primarily the responsibility for the decision whether to arm or not to arm the Irish army. The policy aclvocated by the British representative in Ireland, Sir John Maffey, and which I unqualifiedly endorse, is to conciliate the Irish army and to obtain its good will by procuring from time to time equipment, which it greatly needs but of a nature which in the vent of an Anglo-Irish crisis would not seriously threaten Britain.

The effect of this attitude on the part of the British representative, and the effect of my attitude in refusing to recommend arms without an explicit undertaking as to their use, have tended to drive the Irish Government into a more friendly attitude to the British and to encourage resentment-against the American Government and myself, as its representative. I am convinced that Mr. de Valera entertains a very bitter personal resentment against the President, who has refused to be intimidated by the Irish in American pressure groups, which in the past have been so powerful in American politics. Mr. de Valera made a serious tactical error in sending a member of his Cabinet, Frank Aiken, to the United States with authority to utilize the efforts of the Irish Nationalist Parties and to identify himself with them as he did by making speeches to the friends of Irish neutrality. This has given me a just grievance which I have pressed home in every way short of a formal protest and which will, I believe, have more effect as time goes on and Mr. Aiken's report as to the unwillingmess of the American people to support the President's defense policy becomos apparent. It is inevitable that Mr. de Valera, should at last come to realize that he has backed the wrong horse, and that I very explicitly amd in writing warned Mr. Aiken against just the mistake that he has made before he left for America.

(2) American Poltical Conditions

Subject to improved military conditions, as outlined above, it is evident that both British and American Irish policy should be guided by a realization of the existence of Irish anti-British groups in the United States. Even if they dwindle in importance and power, they should always be considered and no gratuitous affront should be given them.

(3) Irish Political conditions

British policy, and, in general, American policy also, should recognize the existence in Ireland of a very small minority actively pro-British under all circumstances, of a more considerable minority inclined to be pro-British but ready to withdraw to a Nationalist position if affronted by tactless British action, and a still larger body of opinion which, taken together with the minorities already mentioned, constitutes probably 80 percent of the population who oppose a Hitler victory but would like to see "England nearly bate".


QUESTIONS OF SUPPLY AND ECONOMIC PRESSURES.

Ireland is dependent on Britain for practically her entire coal supply, her entire supply of petrol and other petroleum products, as well as for arms, most of the raw materials used by Irish industries, and all but the simplest tools. At present the coal outlook in Ireland contemplates at least a 50 percent reduction from the year before, and the coal being supplied is so inferior that locomotive engines have difficulty in maintaining steam and usually run many hours late, even on short runs. The effort to substitute turf for coal is being made but with only partial success. The administration of the effort, like most of the administrative efforts of the Irish Government, has been badly co-ordinated and ineffective. There will probably be serious fuel shortages in the large cities with accompanying discontent. At the present time Britain is supplying Ireland with about half the petrol supplied a year ago. This, instead of being for motor lorries, has been rationed somewhat liberally to private car owners with the result that it is used for pleasure purposes and not stored for emergencies. The food supply, if the Government reports on the harvest are to be believed and they are probably not more than 25 per cent exaggerated as to wheat, will not become serious this year, although, in spite of the Government statements, it is unlikely at the outside that more than eight months supply of wheat has been produced in the recent crop. The sugar position is likewise uncertain, but the Government feels warranted in allowing the liberal ration of one pound a week. Unemployment would be a very serious menace to the De Valera Government if it were not for the absorption of considerable numbers by the British labor market. If the seasonal agricultural workers were not retained by Britain, their return would aggravate the situation.

It would appear from the foregoing that, by the total with holding of coal and petrol, all industry and transport in Ireland could be disorganized within a very short period, probably six weeks. My personal view of this situation is that it should not be treated in a spirit of retribution but that on the other hand neither the British nor the American Governments should be sentimental about it. They should not enforce sacrifices upon their own nationals for the benefit of Irish neutrals.

From the British point of view, especially, this situation, as far as it can be detached from the general military crisis, should be regarded as an opportunity to educate the Irish people to the realities of their situation, that is to say, to a realization of their essential dependence On Britain for markets, for supplies, for security. If Mr. de Valera's doctrine of self-sufficiency, which has been injected into the rising generation of Irishmen, can be shown to be fallacious, a very valuable lesson looking to a future betterment of relations between the two countries will have been imparted. My conviction is that from the British point of view, and also from the American viewpoint, when we provide essential materials the fact should be so publiclined that the truth of origin of these supplies is manifest. Otherwise, the Irish Government will continue, as it is now doing and has done, to claim credit with the people for everything obtained. One of the favorite attitudes of the Irish Ministers in their weekend political addresses in their respective districts is to point with pride to the success of the Government in achieving this or that.

Just how this can be specified I do not pretend to say, but only statements made by responsible and conspicuous public officials are carried in the Irish newspapers.. The censorship will undoubtedly suppress any ordinary, news item accounting for the origin of supplies. I would recommend this, not with the intention of overthrowing Mr. de Valera's Government but with the hope that it might force him and his associates to liquidate their own misleading statements. There is every reason to congratulate the British Government on the fact that an Irish Government is now governing Ireland and coping with the unrest and underground revolution that seems to be the normal condition of the island. Although seven or eight hundred of the key men of the revolutionary I.R.A. are now in jail, their activities are undiminished and there is reason to believe that one Stephen Nayes, who recently escaped from a kidnapped confinement by I.R.A. captors, made a confession which, although under duress, may I well have contained more truth than fiction. This confession is in. the hands of the I.R.A. and portions of it, incriminating two Cabinet Ministers in the bombing outrages perpetrated in England before the outbreak of the war and in the theft from the National Arsenal in Phoenix Park, are being circulated by underground means. The Government reprieved the kidnapper, who had been sentenced to death by the Military Tribunal, and has commuted his sentence to Life. The interpretation of this is that they prefer to keep him alive as a hostage. It has been brought out that Hayes, a former Chief of Staff of the I.R.A., for the past two years has been a stool pigeon for the Department of Justice.

Discussing the Church situation with Mr. Taylor, I could only tell him that it was my belief that whatever attitude the Vatican might take, the Irish bishops would be unlikely to give more than lip service to a policy which interfered with nationalistic consideration. It, however, would be of enormous value in stemming the attempt of German propoganda in Ireland to have it known that the Vatican was not unfriendly to the policy of the British and American Governments.


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Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Taylor-->FDR (telegram) 9/27/41

Document:

TELEGRAM
THE WHITE HOUSE
WASHINGHTON


The White House
September 27 1941

For the President
The following telegram No 4560 September 27, 11 am, from London, has been received from Myron Taylor:

"I plan to leave Tuesday and while I had no thought of interviews while here, Winant tells me that Dean and Churchill have signified dsire that I see them. It would be helpful to me if you would let me know how much of the substance of the reports of my conversation with the Pope and Salazar which I sent from Lisbon you wish me to disclose."

The following telegram No. 4566. September 27, 1pm, has been received from Winant:

"Since Taylor lunching with Churchill Sunday, it would be helpful if he could have immediate reply to his message".


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Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: The Archbishop and the Bishops of Holand to the Clergy and to the Faithful who are Entrusted to their Care 9/29/41

Document:
THE ARCHBISHOP AND THE BISHOPS OF HOLLAND TO THE CLERGY AND TO THE FAITHFUL WHO ARE ENTRUSTED TO THEIR CARE.

Salvation and Benediction in the Lord!

Dear Faithful:

For a long time we have abstained from speaking, at least in public, of the numerous injustices of which we Catholics have been the object during these last months. We were prohibited from organizing, even among our faithful, collections for the maintenance of our works of charity and our cultural institutions, with the result that these works are threatened in their activity and their existence. Our institute Radio Catholique, for which we have imposed upon ourselves so many sacrifices for a great, many years, has been taken away from us. Our Catholic daily papers are suppressed or so deprived of liberty that one can scarcely speak still of Catholic papers. Our teaching members of religious orders, to whom parents had so willingly entrusted their children, have been deprived of 40% of their salary, which for them has been a severe trial; several will have most serious difficulties in meeting their financial obligations; in any case, they will no longer be able to exercise their beneficence for which recourse was always had to them in particular. Numerous priests and members of religious orders are no longer able to direct schools, not for lack of qualifications demanded by law, but because of their priestly and religious status. By virtue of an order concerning non-commercial associations and foundations, some of our institutions have had to pay very large sums of money, among others, the Foundation St. Radbout, for our Catholic University was obliged to pay 143,000 florins taken on the money collected each year by small subscriptions. The Youth associations, such as the Catholic Boy Scouts, the Young Guard and the Crusade were simply suppressed.

But now an act has taken place regarding which we can no longer keep silence without betraying our spiritual mission. "Non possumus non loqui": The Commissar of the Reich has decided that the management of the Roman Catholic Workers' League shall cease all activity and that in its place a commissar shall be named with full powers. This commissar belongs to the National Socialist movement. By virtue of this act the Catholic Workers' League, together with the organizations which ere affiliated with it, is falling to pieces and the exercise of its religious and moral action becomes impossible.

In effect, you well know, dear Faithfull, that we have many times put you on your guard against the dangers of National Socialism for our faith. On Sunday, January 26, we caused it to be announced from all pulpits that the sacraments should be refused "to the Catholic as regards whom it is notorious that he gives appreciable support to the National Socialist movement", " because this movement not only threatens in certain essentail points to fetter the whole Church in the free exercise of its mission, but in addition constitutes for those who adhere to it a serious danger for the Christian conception of life."

It is clear that a Catholic association cannot be directed by men whose mentality is in direct contadition with the Catholic conception of life and who strive to propagate upon them. From this fact it ceases to be a Catholic association.

But more than this. The Workers' League is placed at the service of the National Socialist Movement, which becomes in reality one of its organizations. Consequently, Catholics can no longer remain members. Until now it has been prohibited, it is true, to be a member of the organizations "associated" with the National Socialist movement (called in Dutch text "covering organizations"), but that alone does not entail refusal of the sacraments. The situation, however, is modified in such a way that it is necessary to consider it equally prohibited to be a member of the "associated organizations" as to participate in the National Socialist movement itself. Accordingly, in the future the sacramnets will be refused to those wo remain members of one of these organizations affiliated with the Workers League in its new form, just as to members of all the other "associated organizations" of the National Socialist movement.

Dear Faithful! We cannot explain to you how profoundly we deplore the disappearance of the Catholic Worker's League. The latter has been particularly dear to us because with its approximately 200,000 members, it embraced a large part of the good and faithful Catholic people; because for half a century our most distinguished men, priests and
laymen, beginning with Schaepman and Ariens, have devoted to it their best efforts; because it has realized an immense amount of good in the social and religious field. Publicly and loudly we raise our voice against the injustice done to tens of thousands of men in depriving them of their social organization. We protest against the unheard of violence done to their conscience in wishing to impose upon them a conception of life which is in opposition to their religious convictions. God permits it. We should incline ourselves before
His impenetrable orders. But we know that God will help us by the assistance of His grace and that after this suppression He will preserve in us the Christian
spirit so profoundly rooted in our souls. We know our men and we knew in advance how they would conduct themselves. However, may it be permitted to us to manifest here publicly our joy at the courageous fidelity of the persons in charge and their refusal of collaboration. We are proud of these men who, even in difficult circumstances, display the excellent qualities which have wrought the greatness of our people: unshakeable force, firmness of character, fidelity to honor and to conscience. Perhaps they will meet with privations, but we are persuaded that we Catholics will not abandon our brothers in need.

Dear members of the Catholic Workers' League, dear Faithful, it is with bleeding heart that we have told you all this. We well realize the sacrifices which are demanded of you. But it is a question of the salvation of your immortal souls.

It would have been easier for us to keep silence, but we cannot leave you in doubt regarding the significance of facts. In this we are in agreement with our German colleagues in the Episcopate. Last July 6th the twenty-nine bishops and superior ecclesiasis of the German Reich caused to be published from their churches a letter protesting against the unjust treatment accorded to the Catholic Church in Germany during recent times. They declared that it is a question of the existence or the suppression of Christianity in the church of Germany."


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Then they continue: Recently there were distributed hundreds of thousands of copies of a book which claimed that we Germans must choose today between Christ and the German people. With burning indignation we refused, we German Catholics, to make such a



Collection Name:
Dear Faithful, there is nothing to add


Series:
PSF


Document name: i465x01--i465x04

Document:
M. Leopold Braun-->Taylor 10/3/41

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Moscow, Russia.



Collection Name:
October 3, 1941
The Honorable Myron Taylor,


Series:
PSF


Document name: i465y01

Document:
Memorandum for Taylor from FDR 10/9/41

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THE WHITE HOUSE.



Collection Name:
WASHINGTON

October 9, 1941.

MEMO


Series:
PSF


Document name: i465z01

Document:
Memorandum for Taylor from FDR 10/9/41

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PSF Vatican Myron Taylor Folder 1-41.



Collection Name: The White House
Washington
October 9, 1941

Series:
PSF


Document name: i465z02

Document:
handwritten note from FDR to Taylor 10/9/41

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THE WHITE HOUSE.



Collection Name:
{Myron}
{Cardinal Hlond of Poland ? at Lour


Series:
PSF


Document name: i465aa01--i465aa09

Document:
Press Comment 10/16/41

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Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Examples of Press Comment for the President from Taylor (cover page)

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Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Taylor-->Rudolph Forster 10/20/41

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Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Memorandum for the President from Taylor 10/18/41

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Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: article from The Gary Post Tribune 10/6/41

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Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: cover page to memorandum

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Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Memorandum for the President from Taylor 10/25/41

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Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: FDR-->Taylor 10/25/41

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Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Taylor-->FDR 10/27/41

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Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Memorandum for the President from Taylor 10/28/41

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Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Memorandum Taylor-->FDR 10/28/41

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Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Memorandum Taylor-->FDR 11/1/41

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Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: L.S. Amery-->Taylor 9/30/41

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Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Taylor-->Amery 11/5/41

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Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Amery-->Taylor 12/19/41

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Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Extracts from "Doctrine and Action"

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Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Taylor-->FDR 11/9/41

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Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Taylor-->FDR 11/18/41

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Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Taylor-->FDR 11/21/41

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Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: Memorandum of Information on Foreign Affairs and the World Crisis

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Collection Name: PSF

Series: Diplomatic Files

Document name: note from FDR to Grace Tully with business card attached (nd)

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166 matches returned.