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Enclosure No. 1
              Address delivered by Ambassador               
               William E. Dodd at Luncheon of               
              American Chamber of Commerce in               
             Germany, Berlin, October 12, 1933.             
                    ECONOMIC NATIONALISM                    
In times of great stress men are too apt to abandon
too much of their past social devices and venture too far
upon unchartered courses.  And the consequence has always
been reaction, sometimes disaster.  With the breakdown of
the old Roman democracy after the enormous success of the
Punic Wars, great group leaders contending for personal and
group advantages brought the Republic to the verge of col-
lapse.  Then a Caesar rose, asserted autocratic powers and
for a time stabilized society.  The great fact so appealed
to Gibson that he wrote the masterpiece of all historical
work.  He overlooked or under-emphasized the cruelties and
the outside exploitation of his golden empire.  I allude
to this because human governmental and economic combina-
tions have always appeared under a few patterns and both
philosophers and politicians waver and hesitate between
the models offered in a Cato, a Gracchus or a Julius Cae-
sar and the ideals which these figures connote.  There are
not many forms of human association- though many new names
have been invented from time to time.  Half-educated states-
men today swing violently away from the ideal purpose of
the first Gracchus and think they find salvation for their
troubled fellows in the arbitrary modes of the man who
fell an easy victim to the cheap devices of the lewd Cleo-
patra.  They forget that the Gracchus democracy failed upon
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